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STRING protein interaction network
Network nodes represent proteins
splice isoforms or post-translational modifications are collapsed, i.e. each node represents all the proteins produced by a single, protein-coding gene locus.
Node Color
colored nodes:
query proteins and first shell of interactors
white nodes:
second shell of interactors
Node Content
empty nodes:
proteins of unknown 3D structure
filled nodes:
some 3D structure is known or predicted
Edges represent protein-protein associations
associations are meant to be specific and meaningful, i.e. proteins jointly contribute to a shared function; this does not necessarily mean they are physically binding to each other.
Known Interactions
from curated databases
experimentally determined
Predicted Interactions
gene neighborhood
gene fusions
gene co-occurrence
protein homology
Your Input:
Gene Fusion
ralRRac prophage; endodeoxyribonuclease toxin ralr; Toxic component of a type I toxin-antitoxin (TA) system. Upon overexpression inhibits growth and reduces colony-forming units in both the presence and absence of the Rac prophage, cells become filamentous. Has deoxyribonuclease activity (probably endonucleolytic), does not digest RNA. Its toxic effects are neutralized by sRNA antitoxin RalA, which is encoded in trans on the opposite DNA strand . Has RAL-like activity (64 aa)    
Predicted Functional Partners:
Rac prophage; double-strand break reduction protein; Helps to maintain the integrity of the chromosome by lowering the steady-state level of double strand breaks . This region of DNA acts as an antitoxin to toxin RalR, a DNase, but it seems to be sRNA RalA that has the antitoxin activity and not this putative protein. Therefore the identity of this as a protein-coding gene has been cast into doubt
Rac prophage; excisionase; Uncharacterized protein YdaQ; Putative lambdoid prophage Rac excisionase
Rac prophage; inhibitor of ftsz, killing protein; Causes inhibition of cell division. At high levels of expression, can also abolish the rod shape of the cells. Division inhibition by KilR can be relieved by overexpression of the cell division protein FtsZ
Rac prophage; exonuclease viii, ds dna exonuclease, 5' --> 3' specific; Is involved in the RecE pathway of recombination. Catalyzes the degradation of double-stranded DNA. Acts progressively in a 5' to 3' direction, releasing 5'-phosphomononucleotides. Has a strong preference for linear duplex substrate DNA and appears to be unable to initiate degradation from single-stranded breaks in DNA
Toxic component of a type V toxin-antitoxin (TA) system. Causes membrane damage when induced by MqsR, slowing cell growth and increasing the formation of dormant persister cells; involved with GhoS, its antitoxin, in reducing cell growth during antibacterial stress . Overexpression causes cell lysis, forming ghost cells; both effects are neutralized by expression of GhoS. Overexpression in the presence of ampicillin increases persister cell formation (persister cells exhibit antibiotic tolerance without genetic change) . Overexpression causes about 90-fold reduction in cellular ATP lev [...]
Rac prophage; protein ydat; Uncharacterized protein YdaT; Phage or Prophage Related
DUF2566 family protein; Acts as an orphan toxin which is important for maintaining cell fitness during stress related to the stringent response (decreased amino acid, purine and thymidine availability). Overexpression inhibits cell growth and increases the formation of persister cells. Causes 99.9% of cells to undergo bacterial lysis within 2 hours after induction; nucleoids condense, the cytoplasm seems empty and the periplasmic space enlarges. The intracellular ATP level decreases about 27-fold suggesting the membrane potential may be disrupted
Toxic membrane persister formation peptide, lexa-regulated; Toxic component of a type I toxin-antitoxin (TA) system (Probable). Overexpression causes cessation of growth, induces stress-response, a number of membrane protein genes, and leads to cell death Inhibits ATP synthesis, ATP levels drop drastically quickly after induction . Part of the programmed response to DNA damage; damage leads to increased accumulation of the protein which slows or stops bacterial growth, probably allowing DNA repair before cells continue to grow
Rac prophage; dna-binding transcriptional repressor racr; Repressor protein for rac prophage
Small toxic protein shob; Toxic component of a type I toxin-antitoxin (TA) system. May be a toxic protein; overexpression causes cessation of growth and rapid membrane depolarization. Overexpression induces stress-response and a number of membrane protein genes
Your Current Organism:
Escherichia coli K12 MG1655
NCBI taxonomy Id: 511145
Other names: E. coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655, Escherichia coli K12 substr. MG1655, Escherichia coli MG1655, Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655, Escherichia coli str. K12 substr. MG1655, Escherichia coli str. MG1655, Escherichia coli strain MG1655
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