STRING protein interaction network
Network nodes represent proteins
splice isoforms or post-translational modifications are collapsed, i.e. each node represents all the proteins produced by a single, protein-coding gene locus.
Node Color
colored nodes:
query proteins and first shell of interactors
white nodes:
second shell of interactors
Node Content
empty nodes:
proteins of unknown 3D structure
filled nodes:
some 3D structure is known or predicted
Edges represent protein-protein associations
associations are meant to be specific and meaningful, i.e. proteins jointly contribute to a shared function; this does not necessarily mean they are physically binding each other.
Known Interactions
from curated databases
experimentally determined
Predicted Interactions
gene neighborhood
gene fusions
gene co-occurrence
protein homology
Your Input:
Gene Fusion
tasProtein tas; Putative enzyme; Not classified; Belongs to the aldo/keto reductase family. Aldo/keto reductase 2 subfamily (346 aa)    
Predicted Functional Partners:
annotation not available
Serine/threonine-protein kinase toxin HipA; Toxic component of a type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) system, first identified by mutations that increase production of persister cells, a fraction of cells that are phenotypic variants not killed by antibiotics, which lead to multidrug tolerance. Persistence may be ultimately due to global remodeling of the persister cell's ribosomes. Phosphorylates Glu-tRNA-ligase (AC P04805, gltX, on 'Ser-239') in vivo. Phosphorylation of GltX prevents it from being charged, leading to an increase in uncharged tRNA(Glu). This induces amino acid starvation and [...]
mRNA interferase toxin RelE; Toxic component of a type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) system. A sequence-specific, ribosome-dependent mRNA endoribonuclease that inhibits translation during amino acid starvation (the stringent response). In vitro acts by cleaving mRNA with high codon specificity in the ribosomal A site between positions 2 and 3. The stop codon UAG is cleaved at a fast rate while UAA and UGA are cleaved with intermediate and slow rates. In vitro mRNA cleavage can also occur in the ribosomal E site after peptide release from peptidyl-tRNA in the P site as well as on free 30S sub [...]
UPF0053 inner membrane protein YgdQ; Putative transport protein
Endoribonuclease toxin MazF; Toxic component of a type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) system. A sequence-specific endoribonuclease it inhibits protein synthesis by cleaving mRNA and inducing bacterial stasis. It is stable, single-strand specific with mRNA cleavage independent of the ribosome, although translation enhances cleavage for some mRNAs. Cleavage occurs at the 5'-end of ACA sequences, yielding a 2',3'-cyclic phosphate and a free 5'-OH, although cleavage can also occur on the 3'-end of the first A. Digests 16S rRNA in vivo 43 nts upstream of the C-terminus; this removes the anti-Shine [...]
Lon protease; ATP-dependent serine protease that mediates the selective degradation of mutant and abnormal proteins as well as certain short-lived regulatory proteins, including some antitoxins. Required for cellular homeostasis and for survival from DNA damage and developmental changes induced by stress. Degrades polypeptides processively to yield small peptide fragments that are 5 to 10 amino acids long. Binds to DNA in a double-stranded, site-specific manner. Endogenous substrates include the regulatory proteins RcsA and SulA, the transcriptional activator SoxS, UmuD and at least ty [...]
Polyphosphate kinase; Catalyzes the reversible transfer of the terminal phosphate of ATP to form a long-chain polyphosphate (polyP). Can form linear polymers of orthophosphate with chain lengths up to 1000 or more. Can use GTP instead of ATP, but the efficiency of GTP is 5% that of ATP. Also exhibits several other enzymatic activities, which include: ATP synthesis from polyP in the presence of excess ADP, general nucleoside-diphosphate kinase activity, linear guanosine 5'-tetraphosphate (ppppG) synthesis and autophosphorylation
Exopolyphosphatase; Degradation of inorganic polyphosphates (polyP). Releases orthophosphate processively from the ends of the polyP chain. Has a strong preference for long-chain polyphosphates and has only weak affinity for smaller size polyP of about 15 residues
Toxin GhoT; Toxic component of a type V toxin-antitoxin (TA) system. Causes membrane damage when induced by MqsR, slowing cell growth and increasing the formation of dormant persister cells; involved with GhoS, its antitoxin, in reducing cell growth during antibacterial stress. Overexpression causes cell lysis, forming ghost cells; both effects are neutralized by expression of GhoS. Overexpression in the presence of ampicillin increases persister cell formation (persister cells exhibit antibiotic tolerance without genetic change). Overexpression causes about 90-fold reduction in cellul [...]
Small toxic protein TisB; Toxic component of a type I toxin-antitoxin (TA) system. Overexpression causes cessation of growth, induces stress- response, a number of membrane protein genes, and leads to cell death. Inhibits ATP synthesis, ATP levels drop over 80% 20 minutes after induction. Part of the programmed response to DNA damage; damage leads to increased accumulation of the protein which slows or stops bacterial growth, probably allowing DNA repair before cells continue to grow
Your Current Organism:
Escherichia coli K12 MG1655
NCBI taxonomy Id: 511145
Other names: E. coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655, Escherichia coli K12 MG1655, Escherichia coli K12 substr. MG1655, Escherichia coli MG1655, Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655, Escherichia coli str. K12 substr. MG1655, Escherichia coli str. MG1655, Escherichia coli strain MG1655
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