STRINGSTRING
STRING protein interaction network
Nodes:
Network nodes represent proteins
splice isoforms or post-translational modifications are collapsed, i.e. each node represents all the proteins produced by a single, protein-coding gene locus.
Node Color
colored nodes:
query proteins and first shell of interactors
white nodes:
second shell of interactors
Node Content
empty nodes:
proteins of unknown 3D structure
filled nodes:
some 3D structure is known or predicted
Edges:
Edges represent protein-protein associations
associations are meant to be specific and meaningful, i.e. proteins jointly contribute to a shared function; this does not necessarily mean they are physically binding to each other.
Known Interactions
from curated databases
experimentally determined
Predicted Interactions
gene neighborhood
gene fusions
gene co-occurrence
Others
textmining
co-expression
protein homology
Your Input:
Neighborhood
Gene Fusion
Cooccurence
Coexpression
Experiments
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Textmining
[Homology]
Score
higBToxic component of a type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) system. A probable translation-dependent mRNA interferase. Overexpression causes cessation of cell growth and inhibits cell proliferation via inhibition of translation; this blockage is overcome by subsequent expression of antitoxin HigA. Overexpression causes cleavage of a number of mRNAs in a translation-dependent fashion, suggesting this is an mRNA interferase. mRNA interferases play a role in bacterial persistence to antibiotics; overexpression of this protein induces persisters resistant to ciprofloxacin and ampicillin (104 aa)    
Predicted Functional Partners:
higA
Antitoxin/dna-binding transcriptional repressor higa; Antitoxin component of a type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) system. Functions as an mRNA interferase antitoxin; overexpression prevents HigB-mediated cessation of cell growth and inhibition of cell proliferation
 
 
 0.999
relE
Toxic component of a type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) system . A sequence-specific, ribosome-dependent mRNA endoribonuclease that inhibits translation during amino acid starvation (the stringent response). In vitro acts by cleaving mRNA with high codon specificity in the ribosomal A site between positions 2 and 3. The stop codon UAG is cleaved at a fast rate while UAA and UGA are cleaved with intermediate and slow rates. In vitro mRNA cleavage can also occur in the ribosomal E site after peptide release from peptidyl- tRNA in the P site as well as on free 30S subunits . In vivo cuts freque [...]
 
   
 0.938
mazF
Toxic component of a type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) system. A sequence-specific endoribonuclease it inhibits protein synthesis by cleaving mRNA and inducing bacterial stasis. It is stable, single- strand specific with mRNA cleavage independent of the ribosome, although translation enhances cleavage for some mRNAs . Cleavage occurs at the 5'-end of ACA sequences, yielding a 2',3'-cyclic phosphate and a free 5'-OH, although cleavage can also occur on the 3'-end of the first A Digests 16S rRNA in vivo 43 nts upstream of the C- terminus; this removes the anti-Shine-Dalgarno sequence forming [...]
  
   
 0.918
yoeB
Toxic component of a type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) system. Its mode of function is controversial; it has been proposed to be an mRNA interferase but also an inhibitor of translation initiation. When overproduced in wild-type cells, inhibits bacterial growth and translation by cleavage of mRNA molecules while it has a weak effect on colony forming ability. Overproduction of Lon protease specifically activates YoeB-dependent mRNA cleavage, leading to lethality. YefM binds to the promoter region of the yefM-yeoB operon to repress transcription, YeoB acts as a corepressor. Also shown in vit [...]
  
   
 0.916
yafQ
Mrna interferase toxin of toxin-antitoxin pair yafq/dinj; Toxic component of a type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) system . A sequence-specific mRNA endoribonuclease that inhibits translation elongation and induces bacterial stasis . Cleavage occurs between the second and third residue of the Lys codon followed by a G or A (5'AAA(G/A)3'), is reading-frame dependent and occurs within the 5' end of most mRNAs . Ribosome-binding confers the sequence specificity and reading frame- dependence . When overexpressed in liquid media YafQ partially inhibits protein synthesis, with a reduction in growth [...]
  
   
 0.911
chpB
Toxic component of a type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) system. ChpB is a sequence-specific mRNA and (weak) tmRNA endoribonuclease that inhibits protein synthesis and induces bacterial stasis. Cleavage is independent of the ribosome. Cleavage occurs at ACY sequences where Y is not C. The endoribonuclease activity is not as strong as that of MazF. The endoribonuclease activity (a toxin) is inhibited by its labile cognate antitoxin ChpS. Toxicity results when the levels of ChpS decrease in the cell, leading to mRNA degradation. Both ChpS and ChpB probably bind to the promoter region of the chp [...]
  
   
 0.910
mqsR
Toxic component of a type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) system. Plays a significant role in the control of biofilm formation and induction of persister cells in the presence of antibiotics. An mRNA interferase which has been reported to be translation-independent . It has also been reported to be translation-dependent . Cleavage has been reported to occur on either side of G in the sequence GCU . Also reported to cleave after C in GC(A/U) sequences . There are only 14 genes in E.coli W3110 (and probably also MG1655) that do not have a GCU sequence and thus are resistant to the mRNA interfera [...]
  
   
 0.908
relB
Rhh-type transcriptional regulator, rel operon repressor / antitoxin relb; Antitoxin component of a type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) system. Counteracts the effect of cognate toxin RelE via direct protein-protein interaction, preventing RelE from entering the ribosome A site and thus inhibiting its endoribonuclease activity. An autorepressor of relBE operon transcription. 2 RelB dimers bind to 2 operator sequences; DNA- binding and repression is stronger when complexed with toxin/corepressor RelE by conditional cooperativity Increased transcription rate of relBE and activation of relE is c [...]
  
   
 0.896
hicA
Mrna interferase toxin of the hicab toxin-antitoxin system; Toxic component of a type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) system. A probable translation-independent mRNA interferase. Overexpression causes cessation of cell growth and inhibits cell proliferation via inhibition of translation; this blockage is overcome (after 90 minutes) by subsequent expression of antitoxin HicB. Overexpression causes cleavage of a number of mRNAs and tmRNA, in a translation-independent fashion, suggesting this is an mRNA interferase . mRNA interferases play a role in bacterial persistence to antibiotics
      
 0.889
hicB
Antitoxin of the hica-hicb toxin-antitoxin system; Antitoxin component of a type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) system. Functions as an mRNA interferase antitoxin; overexpression prevents HicA-mediated cessation of cell growth and inhibition of cell proliferation
      
 0.877
Your Current Organism:
Escherichia coli K12 MG1655
NCBI taxonomy Id: 511145
Other names: E. coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655, Escherichia coli K12 substr. MG1655, Escherichia coli MG1655, Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655, Escherichia coli str. K12 substr. MG1655, Escherichia coli str. MG1655, Escherichia coli strain MG1655
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