Highlighted Dataset:
Gordon et al., SARS-CoV-2 protein interaction map
(Nature 2020)

All 332 virus-interacting human proteins are marked for emphasis in this version of STRING; The color-code indicates the identity of the viral interaction partner (see the interactive color-legend below the network). This selected starting network shows the top 10 interaction partners according to Gordon et al., plus the 15 proteins annotated in Uniprot to be revelant to the disease (without color emphasis).

Search in Homo sapiens:

SARS-CoV2 ESARS-CoV2 MSARS-CoV2 NSARS-CoV2 SpikeSARS-CoV2 nsp1SARS-CoV2 nsp2SARS-CoV2 nsp4SARS-CoV2 nsp5SARS-CoV2 nsp5_C145ASARS-CoV2 nsp6SARS-CoV2 nsp7SARS-CoV2 nsp8SARS-CoV2 nsp9SARS-CoV2 nsp10SARS-CoV2 nsp11SARS-CoV2 nsp12SARS-CoV2 nsp13SARS-CoV2 nsp14SARS-CoV2 nsp15SARS-CoV2 orf3aSARS-CoV2 orf3bSARS-CoV2 orf6SARS-CoV2 orf7aSARS-CoV2 orf8SARS-CoV2 orf9bSARS-CoV2 orf9cSARS-CoV2 orf10
Network nodes represent proteins
splice isoforms or post-translational modifications are collapsed, i.e. each node represents all the proteins produced by a single, protein-coding gene locus.
Node Color
colored nodes:
query proteins and first shell of interactors
white nodes:
second shell of interactors
Node Content
empty nodes:
proteins of unknown 3D structure
filled nodes:
some 3D structure is known or predicted
Edges represent protein-protein associations
associations are meant to be specific and meaningful, i.e. proteins jointly contribute to a shared function; this does not necessarily mean they are physically binding each other.
Edge Confidence
low (0.150)
high (0.700)
medium (0.400)
highest (0.900)
Your Input:
SGTASmall glutamine-rich tetratricopeptide repeat-containing protein alpha; Co-chaperone that binds misfolded and hydrophobic patches-containing client proteins in the cytosol. Mediates their targeting to the endoplasmic reticulum but also regulates their sorting to the proteasome when targeting fails. Functions in tail-anchored/type II transmembrane proteins membrane insertion constituting with ASNA1 and the BAG6 complex a targeting module. Probably functions upstream of the BAG6 complex and ASNA1, binding more rapidly the transmembrane domain of newly synthesized proteins. It is also inv [...] (313 aa)
BST2Bone marrow stromal antigen 2; IFN-induced antiviral host restriction factor which efficiently blocks the release of diverse mammalian enveloped viruses by directly tethering nascent virions to the membranes of infected cells. Acts as a direct physical tether, holding virions to the cell membrane and linking virions to each other. The tethered virions can be internalized by endocytosis and subsequently degraded or they can remain on the cell surface. In either case, their spread as cell-free virions is restricted. Its target viruses belong to diverse families, including retroviridae- h [...] (180 aa)
MPP5MAGUK p55 subfamily member 5; May play a role in tight junctions biogenesis and in the establishment of cell polarity in epithelial cells. May modulate SC6A1/GAT1-mediated GABA uptake by stabilizing the transporter. Required for localization of EZR to the apical membrane of parietal cells and may play a role in the dynamic remodeling of the apical cytoskeleton (By similarity); Belongs to the MAGUK family (675 aa)
SLC9A3R1Na(+)/H(+) exchange regulatory cofactor NHE-RF1; Scaffold protein that connects plasma membrane proteins with members of the ezrin/moesin/radixin family and thereby helps to link them to the actin cytoskeleton and to regulate their surface expression. Necessary for recycling of internalized ADRB2. Was first known to play a role in the regulation of the activity and subcellular location of SLC9A3. Necessary for cAMP-mediated phosphorylation and inhibition of SLC9A3. May enhance Wnt signaling. May participate in HTR4 targeting to microvilli (By similarity). Involved in the regulation of [...] (358 aa)
TBK1Serine/threonine-protein kinase TBK1; Serine/threonine kinase that plays an essential role in regulating inflammatory responses to foreign agents. Following activation of toll-like receptors by viral or bacterial components, associates with TRAF3 and TANK and phosphorylates interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) IRF3 and IRF7 as well as DDX3X. This activity allows subsequent homodimerization and nuclear translocation of the IRFs leading to transcriptional activation of pro-inflammatory and antiviral genes including IFNA and IFNB. In order to establish such an antiviral state, TBK1 form s [...] (729 aa)
SMAD3Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3; Receptor-regulated SMAD (R-SMAD) that is an intracellular signal transducer and transcriptional modulator activated by TGF-beta (transforming growth factor) and activin type 1 receptor kinases. Binds the TRE element in the promoter region of many genes that are regulated by TGF-beta and, on formation of the SMAD3/SMAD4 complex, activates transcription. Also can form a SMAD3/SMAD4/JUN/FOS complex at the AP-1/SMAD site to regulate TGF-beta-mediated transcription. Has an inhibitory effect on wound healing probably by modulating both growth and mi [...] (425 aa)
ITGALIntegrin alpha-L; Integrin alpha-L/beta-2 is a receptor for ICAM1, ICAM2, ICAM3 and ICAM4. Integrin alpha-L/beta-2 is also a receptor for F11R. Involved in a variety of immune phenomena including leukocyte-endothelial cell interaction, cytotoxic T-cell mediated killing, and antibody dependent killing by granulocytes and monocytes. Contributes to natural killer cell cytotoxicity. Involved in leukocyte adhesion and transmigration of leukocytes including T-cells and neutrophils. Required for generation of common lymphoid progenitor cells in bone marrow, indicating a role in lymphopoiesis [...] (1170 aa)
ZNF318Zinc finger protein 318; Repressed AR-mediated transcriptional activation. May act as a transcriptional regulator during spermatogenesis and, in particular, during meiotic division (By similarity); Zinc fingers C2H2-type (2279 aa)
IL6RInterleukin-6 receptor subunit alpha; Part of the receptor for interleukin 6. Binds to IL6 with low affinity, but does not transduce a signal. Signal activation necessitate an association with IL6ST. Activation may lead to the regulation of the immune response, acute-phase reactions and hematopoiesis; CD molecules (468 aa)
HOOK1Protein Hook homolog 1; Required for spermatid differentiation. Probably involved in the positioning of the microtubules of the manchette and the flagellum in relation to the membrane skeleton (By similarity). Component of the FTS/Hook/FHIP complex (FHF complex). The FHF complex may function to promote vesicle trafficking and/or fusion via the homotypic vesicular protein sorting complex (the HOPS complex) (728 aa)
IL6STInterleukin-6 receptor subunit beta; Signal-transducing molecule. The receptor systems for IL6, LIF, OSM, CNTF, IL11, CTF1 and BSF3 can utilize IL6ST for initiating signal transmission. Binding of IL6 to IL6R induces IL6ST homodimerization and formation of a high-affinity receptor complex, which activates Janus kinases. That causes phosphorylation of IL6ST tyrosine residues which in turn activates STAT3. Mediates signals which regulate immune response, hematopoiesis, pain control and bone metabolism (By similarity). Has a role in embryonic development (By similarity). Does not bind IL6 [...] (918 aa)
DDX1ATP-dependent RNA helicase DDX1; Acts as an ATP-dependent RNA helicase, able to unwind both RNA-RNA and RNA-DNA duplexes. Possesses 5’ single-stranded RNA overhang nuclease activity. Possesses ATPase activity on various RNA, but not DNA polynucleotides. May play a role in RNA clearance at DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), thereby facilitating the template-guided repair of transcriptionally active regions of the genome. Together with RELA, acts as a coactivator to enhance NF-kappa-B-mediated transcriptional activation. Acts as a positive transcriptional regulator of cyclin CCND2 expressi [...] (740 aa)
TMPRSS2Transmembrane protease serine 2; Serine protease that proteolytically cleaves and activates the viral spike glycoproteins which facilitate virus- cell membrane fusions; spike proteins are synthesized and maintained in precursor intermediate folding states and proteolysis permits the refolding and energy release required to create stable virus-cell linkages and membrane coalescence. Facilitates human SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection via two independent mechanisms, proteolytic cleavage of ACE2, which might promote viral uptake, and cleavage of coronavirus spike glycoprotein which ac [...] (529 aa)
IL6Interleukin-6; Cytokine with a wide variety of biological functions. It is a potent inducer of the acute phase response. Plays an essential role in the final differentiation of B-cells into Ig- secreting cells Involved in lymphocyte and monocyte differentiation. Acts on B-cells, T-cells, hepatocytes, hematopoietic progenitor cells and cells of the CNS. Required for the generation of T(H)17 cells. Also acts as a myokine. It is discharged into the bloodstream after muscle contraction and acts to increase the breakdown of fats and to improve insulin resistance. It induces myeloma and plas [...] (212 aa)
MARK2Serine/threonine-protein kinase MARK2; Serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in cell polarity and microtubule dynamics regulation. Phosphorylates CRTC2/TORC2, DCX, HDAC7, KIF13B, MAP2, MAP4, MAPT/TAU, and RAB11FIP2. Plays a key role in cell polarity by phosphorylating the microtubule-associated proteins MAP2, MAP4 and MAPT/TAU at KXGS motifs, causing detachment from microtubules, and their disassembly. Regulates epithelial cell polarity by phosphorylating RAB11FIP2. Involved in the regulation of neuronal migration through its dual activities in regulating cellular polarity and micro [...] (788 aa)
ACE2Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2; Carboxypeptidase which converts angiotensin I to angiotensin 1-9, a peptide of unknown function, and angiotensin II to angiotensin 1-7, a vasodilator. Also able to hydrolyze apelin- 13 and dynorphin-13 with high efficiency. May be an important regulator of heart function (805 aa)
ANO6Anoctamin-6; Small-conductance calcium-activated nonselective cation (SCAN) channel which acts as a regulator of phospholipid scrambling in platelets and osteoblasts. Phospholipid scrambling results in surface exposure of phosphatidylserine which in platelets is essential to trigger the clotting system whereas in osteoblasts is essential for the deposition of hydroxyapatite during bone mineralization. Has calcium-dependent phospholipid scramblase activity; scrambles phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylcholine and galactosylceramide (By similarity). Can generate outwardly rectifying chlorid [...] (931 aa)
MARK3MAP/microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 3; Involved in the specific phosphorylation of microtubule- associated proteins for tau, MAP2 and MAP4. Phosphorylates CDC25C on ’Ser-216’. Regulates localization and activity of some histone deacetylases by mediating phosphorylation of HDAC7, promoting subsequent interaction between HDAC7 and 14-3-3 and export from the nucleus. Negatively regulates the Hippo signaling pathway and antagonizes the phosphorylation of LATS1. Cooperates with DLG5 to inhibit the kinase activity of STK3/MST2 toward LATS1 (753 aa)
HDAC2Histone deacetylase 2; Responsible for the deacetylation of lysine residues on the N-terminal part of the core histones (H2A, H2B, H3 and H4). Histone deacetylation gives a tag for epigenetic repression and plays an important role in transcriptional regulation, cell cycle progression and developmental events. Histone deacetylases act via the formation of large multiprotein complexes. Forms transcriptional repressor complexes by associating with MAD, SIN3, YY1 and N-COR. Interacts in the late S-phase of DNA-replication with DNMT1 in the other transcriptional repressor complex composed o [...] (488 aa)
KPNA2Importin subunit alpha-1; Functions in nuclear protein import as an adapter protein for nuclear receptor KPNB1. Binds specifically and directly to substrates containing either a simple or bipartite NLS motif. Docking of the importin/substrate complex to the nuclear pore complex (NPC) is mediated by KPNB1 through binding to nucleoporin FxFG repeats and the complex is subsequently translocated through the pore by an energy requiring, Ran- dependent mechanism. At the nucleoplasmic side of the NPC, Ran binds to importin-beta and the three components separate and importin-alpha and -beta ar [...] (529 aa)
PHB2Prohibitin-2; Acts as a mediator of transcriptional repression by nuclear hormone receptors via recruitment of histone deacetylases (By similarity). Functions as an estrogen receptor (ER)-selective coregulator that potentiates the inhibitory activities of antiestrogens and represses the activity of estrogens. Competes with NCOA1 for modulation of ER transcriptional activity. Probably involved in regulating mitochondrial respiration activity and in aging (299 aa)
PHBProhibitin; Prohibitin inhibits DNA synthesis. It has a role in regulating proliferation. As yet it is unclear if the protein or the mRNA exhibits this effect. May play a role in regulating mitochondrial respiration activity and in aging (272 aa)
MARK1Serine/threonine-protein kinase MARK1; Serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in cell polarity and microtubule dynamics regulation. Phosphorylates DCX, MAP2, MAP4 and MAPT/TAU. Involved in cell polarity by phosphorylating the microtubule-associated proteins MAP2, MAP4 and MAPT/TAU at KXGS motifs, causing detachment from microtubules, and their disassembly. Involved in the regulation of neuronal migration through its dual activities in regulating cellular polarity and microtubule dynamics, possibly by phosphorylating and regulating DCX. Also acts as a positive regulator of the Wnt sig [...] (796 aa)
FURINFurin; Furin is likely to represent the ubiquitous endoprotease activity within constitutive secretory pathways and capable of cleavage at the RX(K/R)R consensus motif; Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin family (794 aa)
PRIM2DNA primase large subunit; DNA primase is the polymerase that synthesizes small RNA primers for the Okazaki fragments made during discontinuous DNA replication (509 aa)
Your Current Organism:
Homo sapiens
NCBI taxonomy Id: 9606
Other names: H. sapiens, Homo sapiens, human, man