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per protein (fruit fly) - STRING interaction network
"per" - Period circadian protein in Drosophila melanogaster
Network nodes represent proteins
splice isoforms or post-translational modifications are collapsed, i.e. each node represents all the proteins produced by a single, protein-coding gene locus.
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colored nodes:
query proteins and first shell of interactors
white nodes:
second shell of interactors
Node Content
empty nodes:
proteins of unknown 3D structure
filled nodes:
some 3D structure is known or predicted
Edges represent protein-protein associations
associations are meant to be specific and meaningful, i.e. proteins jointly contribute to a shared function; this does not necessarily mean they are physically binding each other.
Known Interactions
from curated databases
experimentally determined
Predicted Interactions
gene neighborhood
gene fusions
gene co-occurrence
protein homology
Your Input:
Gene Fusion
perPeriod circadian protein; Essential for biological clock functions. Determines the period length of circadian and ultradian rhythms; an increase in PER dosage leads to shortened circadian rhythms and a decrease leads to lengthened circadian rhythms. Essential for the circadian rhythmicity of locomotor activity, eclosion behavior, and for the rhythmic component of the male courtship song that originates in the thoracic nervous system. The biological cycle depends on the rhythmic formation and nuclear localization of the TIM-PER complex. Light induces the degradation of TIM, which promot [...] (1218 aa)    
Predicted Functional Partners:
Discs overgrown protein kinase; Involved in circadian rhythms, viability and molecular oscillations of the clock genes period (per) and timeless (tim). Dbt reduces the stability and thus the accumulation of monomeric per proteins, probably through phosphorylation. No evident circadian oscillation is detected in head. Together with CkIalpha, regulates processing of ci by phosphorylating it which promotes its binding to slmb, the F-box recognition component of the SCF(slmb) E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase; Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. CK1 Ser/Thr protein kinase family. Casein k [...] (440 aa)
Circadian locomoter output cycles protein kaput; Circadian regulator that acts as a transcription factor and generates a rhythmic output with a period of about 24 hours. Oscillates in antiphase to the cycling observed for period (PER) and timeless (TIM). According to PubMed-9742131, reaches peak abundance within several hours of the dark-light transition at ZT0 (zeitgeber 0), whereas PubMed-9616122 describes bimodal oscillating expression with maximum at ZT5 and ZT23. Clock-cycle heterodimers activate cycling transcription of PER and TIM by binding to the E-box (5’-CACGTG-3’) present i [...] (1027 aa)
Protein timeless; Required for the production of circadian rhythms. The biological cycle depends on the rhythmic formation and nuclear localization of the TIM-PER complex. Light induces the degradation of TIM, which promotes elimination of PER. Nuclear activity of the heterodimer coordinatively regulates PER and TIM transcription through a negative feedback loop. Behaves as a negative element in circadian transcriptional loop. Does not appear to bind DNA, suggesting indirect transcriptional inhibition; Belongs to the timeless family (1398 aa)
Cryptochrome-1; Blue light-dependent regulator that is the input of the circadian feedback loop. Has no photolyase activity for cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers or 6-4 photoproducts. Regulation of expression by light suggests a role in photoreception for locomotor activity rhythms. Functions, together with per, as a transcriptional repressor required for the oscillation of peripheral circadian clocks and for the correct specification of clock cells. Genes directly activated by the transcription factors Clock (Clk) and cycle (cyc) are repressed by cry. Necessary for light-dependent magneto [...] (542 aa)
Protein cycle; Putative transcription factor involved in the generation of biological rhythms. Activates cycling transcription of Period (PER) and Timeless (TIM) by binding to the E-box (5’-CACGTG-3’) present in their promoters (413 aa)
Vrille, isoform A; Vrille (Vri) is a bZIP transcription factor acting as an enhancer of dpp phenotypes both in embryo and in wing. It is involved in hair and cell growth and in tracheal development. Vri is a clock-controlled gene acting as a repressor of Clk and cry (729 aa)
Protein kinase shaggy; Required for several developmental events such as syncytial blastoderm formation and embryonic segmentation. Is involved in transcriptional regulation. Required for arm phosphorylation. Wg signaling operates by inactivating the sgg repression of en autoactivation. Negatively controls the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) growth in presynaptic motoneurons. Plays a role in the regulation of microtubule dynamics and actin cytoskeleton during embryogenesis. Required for phosphorylation of sra in activated eggs. Essential for completion of meiosis, possibly by triggering c [...] (1168 aa)
Supernumerary limbs, isoform B; Ubiquitin-protein transferase activity; phosphoprotein binding; protein dimerization activity (510 aa)
Casein kinase II subunit alpha; Casein kinases are operationally defined by their preferential utilization of acidic proteins such as caseins as substrates. The alpha chain contains the catalytic site. May participate in Wnt signaling (336 aa)
PAR-domain protein 1, isoform D; Sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity; sequence-specific DNA binding; protein homodimerization activity; RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity involved in positive regulation of transcription. It is involved in the biological process described with- mitotic nuclear division; DNA endoreduplication; circadian rhythm; positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated; regulation of lipid metabolic process; growth; response to nutrient (647 aa)
Your Current Organism:
Drosophila melanogaster
NCBI taxonomy Id: 7227
Other names: D. melanogaster, Drosophila melanogaster, fruit fly
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