per protein (fruit fly) - STRING interaction network
"per" - Period in Drosophila melanogaster
Network nodes represent proteins
splice isoforms or post-translational modifications are collapsed, i.e. each node represents all the proteins produced by a single, protein-coding gene locus.
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query proteins and first shell of interactors
white nodes:
second shell of interactors
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proteins of unknown 3D structure
filled nodes:
some 3D structure is known or predicted
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Known Interactions
from curated databases
experimentally determined
Predicted Interactions
gene neighborhood
gene fusions
gene co-occurrence
protein homology
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Gene Fusion
perPeriod; Essential for biological clock functions. Determines the period length of circadian and ultradian rhythms; an increase in PER dosage leads to shortened circadian rhythms and a decrease leads to lengthened circadian rhythms. Essential for the circadian rhythmicity of locomotor activity, eclosion behavior, and for the rhythmic component of the male courtship song that originates in the thoracic nervous system. The biological cycle depends on the rhythmic formation and nuclear localization of the TIM-PER complex. Light induces the degradation of TIM, which promotes elimination of [...] (1218 aa)    
Predicted Functional Partners:
Discs overgrown; Involved in circadian rhythms, viability and molecular oscillations of the clock genes period (per) and timeless (tim). Dbt reduces the stability and thus the accumulation of monomeric per proteins, probably through phosphorylation. No evident circadian oscillation is detected in head. Together with CkIalpha, regulates processing of ci by phosphorylating it which promotes its binding to slmb, the F-box recognition component of the SCF(slmb) E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase (PubMed-16326393) (440 aa)
Clock; Circadian regulator that acts as a transcription factor and generates a rhythmic output with a period of about 24 hours. Oscillates in antiphase to the cycling observed for period (PER) and timeless (TIM). According to PubMed-9742131, reaches peak abundance within several hours of the dark-light transition at ZT0 (zeitgeber 0), whereas PubMed-9616122 describes bimodal oscillating expression with maximum at ZT5 and ZT23. Clock-cycle heterodimers activate cycling transcription of PER and TIM by binding to the E-box (5’-CACGTG-3’) present in their promoters. Once induced, Period an [...] (1027 aa)
Cycle; Putative transcription factor involved in the generation of biological rhythms. Activates cycling transcription of Period (PER) and Timeless (TIM) by binding to the E-box (5’-CACGTG-3’) present in their promoters (413 aa)
(6-4)-photolyase (540 aa)
Timeless; Required for the production of circadian rhythms. The biological cycle depends on the rhythmic formation and nuclear localization of the TIM-PER complex. Light induces the degradation of TIM, which promotes elimination of PER. Nuclear activity of the heterodimer coordinatively regulates PER and TIM transcription through a negative feedback loop. Behaves as a negative element in circadian transcriptional loop. Does not appear to bind DNA, suggesting indirect transcriptional inhibition (1398 aa)
Cryptochrome; Blue light-dependent regulator that is the input of the circadian feedback loop. Has no photolyase activity for cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers or 6-4 photoproducts. Regulation of expression by light suggests a role in photoreception for locomotor activity rhythms. Functions, together with per, as a transcriptional repressor required for the oscillation of peripheral circadian clocks and for the correct specification of clock cells. Genes directly activated by the transcription factors Clock (Clk) and cycle (cyc) are repressed by cry. Necessary for light-dependent magnetose [...] (542 aa)
Casein kinase Ialpha; Casein kinases are operationally defined by their preferential utilization of acidic proteins such as caseins as substrates. Can phosphorylate a large number of proteins. Negative regulator of wg signaling (PubMed-22095083). Phosphorylates arm directly or indirectly and stimulates its degradation which prevents inappropriate wg signaling (PubMed-11955436, PubMed-11927557, PubMed-22095083). Phosphorylates smo which promotes its accumulation at the cell surface and its signaling activity in response to hh (PubMed-15616566). Together with dco, regulates proteolytic p [...] (337 aa)
Photorepair (555 aa)
Deoxyribodipyrimidine photo-lyase activity (330 aa)
Taiman (2047 aa)
Your Current Organism:
Drosophila melanogaster
NCBI taxonomy Id: 7227
Other names: D. melanogaster, Drosophila melanogaster, fruit fly
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