STRINGSTRING
STRING protein interaction network
Nodes:
Network nodes represent proteins
splice isoforms or post-translational modifications are collapsed, i.e. each node represents all the proteins produced by a single, protein-coding gene locus.
Node Color
colored nodes:
query proteins and first shell of interactors
white nodes:
second shell of interactors
Node Content
empty nodes:
proteins of unknown 3D structure
filled nodes:
a 3D structure is known or predicted
Edges:
Edges represent protein-protein associations
associations are meant to be specific and meaningful, i.e. proteins jointly contribute to a shared function; this does not necessarily mean they are physically binding to each other.
Known Interactions
from curated databases
experimentally determined
Predicted Interactions
gene neighborhood
gene fusions
gene co-occurrence
Others
textmining
co-expression
protein homology
Your Input:
Neighborhood
Gene Fusion
Cooccurrence
Coexpression
Experiments
Databases
Textmining
[Homology]
Score
SMOSmoothened homolog; G protein-coupled receptor that probably associates with the patched protein (PTCH) to transduce the hedgehog's proteins signal. Binding of sonic hedgehog (SHH) to its receptor patched is thought to prevent normal inhibition by patched of smoothened (SMO). Required for the accumulation of KIF7, GLI2 and GLI3 in the cilia. Interacts with DLG5 at the ciliary base to induce the accumulation of KIF7 and GLI2 at the ciliary tip for GLI2 activation (By similarity). (787 aa)    
Predicted Functional Partners:
SHH
Sonic hedgehog protein N-product; [Sonic hedgehog protein]: The C-terminal part of the sonic hedgehog protein precursor displays an autoproteolysis and a cholesterol transferase activity (By similarity). Both activities result in the cleavage of the full-length protein into two parts (ShhN and ShhC) followed by the covalent attachment of a cholesterol moiety to the C-terminal of the newly generated ShhN (By similarity). Both activities occur in the reticulum endoplasmic (By similarity). Once cleaved, ShhC is degraded in the endoplasmic reticulum (By similarity).
   
 0.999
PTCH1
Protein patched homolog 1; Acts as a receptor for sonic hedgehog (SHH), indian hedgehog (IHH) and desert hedgehog (DHH). Associates with the smoothened protein (SMO) to transduce the hedgehog's proteins signal. Seems to have a tumor suppressor function, as inactivation of this protein is probably a necessary, if not sufficient step for tumorigenesis. Belongs to the patched family.
   
 0.999
SUFU
Suppressor of fused homolog; Negative regulator in the hedgehog/smoothened signaling pathway. Down-regulates GLI1-mediated transactivation of target genes. Down-regulates GLI2-mediated transactivation of target genes. Part of a corepressor complex that acts on DNA-bound GLI1. May also act by linking GLI1 to BTRC and thereby targeting GLI1 to degradation by the proteasome. Sequesters GLI1, GLI2 and GLI3 in the cytoplasm, this effect is overcome by binding of STK36 to both SUFU and a GLI protein. Negative regulator of beta-catenin signaling (By similarity). Regulates the formation of eit [...]
     
 0.998
IHH
Indian hedgehog protein C-product; Intercellular signal essential for a variety of patterning events during development. Binds to the patched (PTC) receptor, which functions in association with smoothened (SMO), to activate the transcription of target genes. Implicated in endochondral ossification: may regulate the balance between growth and ossification of the developing bones. Induces the expression of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHRP) (By similarity).
   
 0.997
ARRB2
Beta-arrestin-2; Functions in regulating agonist-mediated G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling by mediating both receptor desensitization and resensitization processes. During homologous desensitization, beta- arrestins bind to the GPRK-phosphorylated receptor and sterically preclude its coupling to the cognate G-protein; the binding appears to require additional receptor determinants exposed only in the active receptor conformation. The beta-arrestins target many receptors for internalization by acting as endocytic adapters (CLASPs, clathrin- associated sorting proteins) and re [...]
    
 0.997
ARRB1
Beta-arrestin-1; Functions in regulating agonist-mediated G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling by mediating both receptor desensitization and resensitization processes. During homologous desensitization, beta- arrestins bind to the GPRK-phosphorylated receptor and sterically preclude its coupling to the cognate G-protein; the binding appears to require additional receptor determinants exposed only in the active receptor conformation. The beta-arrestins target many receptors for internalization by acting as endocytic adapters (CLASPs, clathrin- associated sorting proteins) and re [...]
    
 0.994
PTCH2
Protein patched homolog 2; Plays a role in the control of cellular growth. May have a role in epidermal development. May act as a receptor for Sonic hedgehog (SHH); Belongs to the patched family.
    
 0.993
KIF3A
Kinesin-like protein KIF3A; Microtubule-based anterograde translocator for membranous organelles. Plus end-directed microtubule sliding activity in vitro. Plays a role in primary cilia formation. Plays a role in centriole cohesion and subdistal appendage organization and function. Regulates the formation of the subdistal appendage via recruitment of DCTN1 to the centriole. Also required for ciliary basal feet formation and microtubule anchoring to mother centriole. Belongs to the TRAFAC class myosin-kinesin ATPase superfamily. Kinesin family. Kinesin II subfamily.
     
 0.991
GRK2
Beta-adrenergic receptor kinase 1; Specifically phosphorylates the agonist-occupied form of the beta-adrenergic and closely related receptors, probably inducing a desensitization of them. Key regulator of LPAR1 signaling. Competes with RALA for binding to LPAR1 thus affecting the signaling properties of the receptor. Desensitizes LPAR1 and LPAR2 in a phosphorylation- independent manner. Positively regulates ciliary smoothened (SMO)-dependent Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway by facilitating the trafficking of SMO into the cilium and the stimulation of SMO activity (By similarity). Belong [...]
    
 0.990
GLI1
Zinc finger protein GLI1; Acts as a transcriptional activator. Binds to the DNA consensus sequence 5'-GACCACCCA-3'. Regulates the transcription of specific genes during normal development. Plays a role in craniofacial development and digital development, as well as development of the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract. Mediates SHH signaling. Plays a role in cell proliferation and differentiation via its role in SHH signaling. Belongs to the GLI C2H2-type zinc-finger protein family.
   
 0.988
Your Current Organism:
Homo sapiens
NCBI taxonomy Id: 9606
Other names: H. sapiens, human, man
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