STRING protein interaction network
Network nodes represent proteins
splice isoforms or post-translational modifications are collapsed, i.e. each node represents all the proteins produced by a single, protein-coding gene locus.
Node Color
colored nodes:
query proteins and first shell of interactors
white nodes:
second shell of interactors
Node Content
empty nodes:
proteins of unknown 3D structure
filled nodes:
some 3D structure is known or predicted
Edges represent protein-protein associations
associations are meant to be specific and meaningful, i.e. proteins jointly contribute to a shared function; this does not necessarily mean they are physically binding each other.
Known Interactions
from curated databases
experimentally determined
Predicted Interactions
gene neighborhood
gene fusions
gene co-occurrence
protein homology
Your Input:
Gene Fusion
GIFGastric intrinsic factor; Promotes absorption of the essential vitamin cobalamin (Cbl) in the ileum. After interaction with CUBN, the GIF-cobalamin complex is internalized via receptor-mediated endocytosis (417 aa)    
Predicted Functional Partners:
Cubilin; Cotransporter which plays a role in lipoprotein, vitamin and iron metabolism, by facilitating their uptake. Binds to ALB, MB, Kappa and lambda-light chains, TF, hemoglobin, GC, SCGB1A1, APOA1, high density lipoprotein, and the GIF-cobalamin complex. The binding of all ligands requires calcium. Serves as important transporter in several absorptive epithelia, including intestine, renal proximal tubules and embryonic yolk sac. Interaction with LRP2 mediates its trafficking throughout vesicles and facilitates the uptake of specific ligands like GC, hemoglobin, ALB, TF and SCGB1A1. [...]
Protein amnionless; Necessary for efficient absorption of vitamin B12. Required for normal CUBN- mediated protein transport in the kidney. May direct the production of trunk mesoderm during development by modulating a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathway in the underlying visceral endoderm (By similarity)
Transcobalamin-1; Binds vitamin B12 with femtomolar affinity and protects it from the acidic environment of the stomach; Belongs to the eukaryotic cobalamin transport proteins family
Trypsin-1; Has activity against the synthetic substrates Boc-Phe- Ser-Arg-Mec, Boc-Leu-Thr-Arg-Mec, Boc-Gln-Ala-Arg-Mec and Boc-Val- Pro-Arg-Mec. The single-chain form is more active than the two- chain form against all of these substrates; Belongs to the peptidase S1 family
Gastrin; Gastrin stimulates the stomach mucosa to produce and secrete hydrochloric acid and the pancreas to secrete its digestive enzymes. It also stimulates smooth muscle contraction and increases blood circulation and water secretion in the stomach and intestine; Endogenous ligands
Polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 5; Catalyzes the initial reaction in O-linked oligosaccharide biosynthesis, the transfer of an N-acetyl-D- galactosamine residue to a serine or threonine residue on the protein receptor. Has activity toward EA2 peptide substrate, but has a weak activity toward Muc2 or Muc1b substrates (By similarity); Belongs to the glycosyltransferase 2 family. GalNAc-T subfamily
CD320 antigen; Receptor for transcobalamin saturated with cobalamin (TCbl). Plays an important role in cobalamin uptake. Plasma membrane protein that is expressed on follicular dendritic cells (FDC) and mediates interaction with germinal center B cells. Functions as costimulator to promote B cell responses to antigenic stimuli; promotes B cell differentiation and proliferation. Germinal center-B (GC-B) cells differentiate into memory B-cells and plasma cells (PC) through interaction with T-cells and follicular dendritic cells (FDC). CD320 augments the proliferation of PC precursors gen [...]
Methionine synthase; Catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from methyl- cobalamin to homocysteine, yielding enzyme-bound cob(I)alamin and methionine. Subsequently, remethylates the cofactor using methyltetrahydrofolate (By similarity); Belongs to the vitamin-B12 dependent methionine synthase family
Choline transporter-like protein 1; Choline transporter. May be involved in membrane synthesis and myelin production; Belongs to the CTL (choline transporter-like) family
Complement C1r subcomponent; C1r B chain is a serine protease that combines with C1q and C1s to form C1, the first component of the classical pathway of the complement system; Belongs to the peptidase S1 family
Your Current Organism:
Homo sapiens
NCBI taxonomy Id: 9606
Other names: H. sapiens, Homo sapiens, human, man
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