STRINGSTRING
STRING protein interaction network
Nodes:
Network nodes represent proteins
splice isoforms or post-translational modifications are collapsed, i.e. each node represents all the proteins produced by a single, protein-coding gene locus.
Node Color
colored nodes:
query proteins and first shell of interactors
white nodes:
second shell of interactors
Node Content
empty nodes:
proteins of unknown 3D structure
filled nodes:
a 3D structure is known or predicted
Edges:
Edges represent protein-protein associations
associations are meant to be specific and meaningful, i.e. proteins jointly contribute to a shared function; this does not necessarily mean they are physically binding to each other.
Known Interactions
from curated databases
experimentally determined
Predicted Interactions
gene neighborhood
gene fusions
gene co-occurrence
Others
textmining
co-expression
protein homology
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PTHParathyroid hormone; PTH elevates calcium level by dissolving the salts in bone and preventing their renal excretion. Stimulates [1-14C]-2-deoxy-D- glucose (2DG) transport and glycogen synthesis in osteoblastic cells. (115 aa)    
Predicted Functional Partners:
PTH1R
Parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone-related peptide receptor; Receptor for parathyroid hormone and for parathyroid hormone- related peptide. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase and also a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system.
   
 0.999
PTHLH
Parathyroid hormone-related protein; Neuroendocrine peptide which is a critical regulator of cellular and organ growth, development, migration, differentiation and survival and of epithelial calcium ion transport. Regulates endochondral bone development and epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during the formation of the mammary glands and teeth. Required for skeletal homeostasis. Promotes mammary mesenchyme differentiation and bud outgrowth by modulating mesenchymal cell responsiveness to BMPs. Upregulates BMPR1A expression in the mammary mesenchyme and this increases the sensitivity o [...]
     
 0.999
PTH2R
Parathyroid hormone 2 receptor; This is a specific receptor for parathyroid hormone. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase. PTH2R may be responsible for PTH effects in a number of physiological systems. It may play a significant role in pancreatic function. PTH2R presence in neurons indicates that it may function as a neurotransmitter receptor (By similarity).
   
 0.997
FGF23
Fibroblast growth factor 23 C-terminal peptide; Regulator of phosphate homeostasis. Inhibits renal tubular phosphate transport by reducing SLC34A1 levels. Upregulates EGR1 expression in the presence of KL (By similarity). Acts directly on the parathyroid to decrease PTH secretion (By similarity). Regulator of vitamin-D metabolism. Negatively regulates osteoblast differentiation and matrix mineralization.
   
  
 0.976
GNAS
Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(s) subunit alpha isoforms XLas; Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) function as transducers in numerous signaling pathways controlled by G protein- coupled receptors (GPCRs). Signaling involves the activation of adenylyl cyclases, resulting in increased levels of the signaling molecule cAMP. GNAS functions downstream of several GPCRs, including beta-adrenergic receptors. XLas isoforms interact with the same set of receptors as GNAS isoforms (By similarity).
    
 0.975
PTH2
Tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues; Plays a role as a potent and selective agonist of PTH2R resulting in adenyl cyclase activation and intracellular calcium levels elevation. Induces protein kinase C beta activation, recruitment of beta-arrestin and PTH2R internalization. May inhibit cell proliferation via its action on PTH2R activation. Neuropeptide which may also have a role in spermatogenesis. May activate nociceptors and nociceptive circuits; Belongs to the parathyroid hormone family.
     
 0.962
CASR
Extracellular calcium-sensing receptor; G-protein-coupled receptor that senses changes in the extracellular concentration of calcium ions and plays a key role in maintaining calcium homeostasis. Senses fluctuations in the circulating calcium concentration and modulates the production of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in parathyroid glands (By similarity). The activity of this receptor is mediated by a G-protein that activates a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. The G-protein-coupled receptor activity is activated by a co-agonist mechanism: aromatic amino acids, such as T [...]
   
  
 0.951
CYP27B1
25-hydroxyvitamin D-1 alpha hydroxylase, mitochondrial; A cytochrome P450 monooxygenase involved in vitamin D metabolism and in calcium and phosphorus homeostasis. Catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the activation of vitamin D in the kidney, namely the hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3/calcidiol at the C1alpha- position to form the hormonally active form of vitamin D3, 1alpha,25- dihydroxyvitamin D3/calcitriol that acts via the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Has 1alpha-hydroxylase activity on vitamin D intermediates of the CYP24A1-mediated inactivation pathway. Converts 24R,25-dihydrox [...]
   
  
 0.941
BGLAP
Osteocalcin; Constitutes 1-2% of the total bone protein. It binds strongly to apatite and calcium.
      
 0.941
GCG
Glicentin-related polypeptide; Glucagon plays a key role in glucose metabolism and homeostasis. Regulates blood glucose by increasing gluconeogenesis and decreasing glycolysis. A counterregulatory hormone of insulin, raises plasma glucose levels in response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Plays an important role in initiating and maintaining hyperglycemic conditions in diabetes. GLP-2 stimulates intestinal growth and up-regulates villus height in the small intestine, concomitant with increased crypt cell proliferation and decreased enterocyte apoptosis. The gastrointestinal tract, fro [...]
   
 
 0.931
Your Current Organism:
Homo sapiens
NCBI taxonomy Id: 9606
Other names: H. sapiens, human, man
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