STRING protein interaction network
Network nodes represent proteins
splice isoforms or post-translational modifications are collapsed, i.e. each node represents all the proteins produced by a single, protein-coding gene locus.
Node Color
colored nodes:
query proteins and first shell of interactors
white nodes:
second shell of interactors
Node Content
empty nodes:
proteins of unknown 3D structure
filled nodes:
some 3D structure is known or predicted
Edges represent protein-protein associations
associations are meant to be specific and meaningful, i.e. proteins jointly contribute to a shared function; this does not necessarily mean they are physically binding to each other.
Known Interactions
from curated databases
experimentally determined
Predicted Interactions
gene neighborhood
gene fusions
gene co-occurrence
protein homology
Your Input:
Gene Fusion
LALBAAlpha-lactalbumin; Regulatory subunit of lactose synthase, changes the substrate specificity of galactosyltransferase in the mammary gland making glucose a good acceptor substrate for this enzyme. This enables LS to synthesize lactose, the major carbohydrate component of milk. In other tissues, galactosyltransferase transfers galactose onto the N-acetylglucosamine of the oligosaccharide chains in glycoproteins; Belongs to the glycosyl hydrolase 22 family (142 aa)    
Predicted Functional Partners:
Beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase 1; The Golgi complex form catalyzes the production of lactose in the lactating mammary gland and could also be responsible for the synthesis of complex-type N-linked oligosaccharides in many glycoproteins as well as the carbohydrate moieties of glycolipids; Beta 4-glycosyltransferases
Heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein; Molecular chaperone implicated in a wide variety of cellular processes, including protection of the proteome from stress, folding and transport of newly synthesized polypeptides, activation of proteolysis of misfolded proteins and the formation and dissociation of protein complexes. Plays a pivotal role in the protein quality control system, ensuring the correct folding of proteins, the re-folding of misfolded proteins and controlling the targeting of proteins for subsequent degradation. This is achieved through cycles of ATP binding, ATP hydrolysis a [...]
Heat shock protein family d (hsp60) member 1; 60 kDa heat shock protein, mitochondrial; Chaperonin implicated in mitochondrial protein import and macromolecular assembly. Together with Hsp10, facilitates the correct folding of imported proteins. May also prevent misfolding and promote the refolding and proper assembly of unfolded polypeptides generated under stress conditions in the mitochondrial matrix. The functional units of these chaperonins consist of heptameric rings of the large subunit Hsp60, which function as a back-to-back double ring. In a cyclic reaction, Hsp60 ring complex [...]
Beta-casein; Important role in determination of the surface properties of the casein micelles; Belongs to the beta-casein family
Clusterin; Isoform 1 functions as extracellular chaperone that prevents aggregation of nonnative proteins. Prevents stress- induced aggregation of blood plasma proteins. Inhibits formation of amyloid fibrils by APP, APOC2, B2M, CALCA, CSN3, SNCA and aggregation-prone LYZ variants (in vitro). Does not require ATP. Maintains partially unfolded proteins in a state appropriate for subsequent refolding by other chaperones, such as HSPA8/HSC70. Does not refold proteins by itself. Binding to cell surface receptors triggers internalization of the chaperone-client complex and subsequent lysosom [...]
UDP-galactose-4-epimerase; UDP-glucose 4-epimerase; Catalyzes two distinct but analogous reactions: the reversible epimerization of UDP-glucose to UDP-galactose and the reversible epimerization of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine to UDP-N- acetylgalactosamine. The reaction with UDP-Gal plays a critical role in the Leloir pathway of galactose catabolism in which galactose is converted to the glycolytic intermediate glucose 6- phosphate. It contributes to the catabolism of dietary galactose and enables the endogenous biosynthesis of both UDP-Gal and UDP- GalNAc when exogenous sources are limited. [...]
Kappa-casein; Kappa-casein stabilizes micelle formation, preventing casein precipitation in milk; Belongs to the kappa-casein family
UDPglucose--hexose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase; Galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase; Plays an important role in galactose metabolism
Lactase-phlorizin hydrolase; LPH splits lactose in the small intestine
Beta-galactosidase; Cleaves beta-linked terminal galactosyl residues from gangliosides, glycoproteins, and glycosaminoglycans; Belongs to the glycosyl hydrolase 35 family
Your Current Organism:
Homo sapiens
NCBI taxonomy Id: 9606
Other names: H. sapiens, human, man
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