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STRING protein interaction network
Network nodes represent proteins
splice isoforms or post-translational modifications are collapsed, i.e. each node represents all the proteins produced by a single, protein-coding gene locus.
Node Color
colored nodes:
query proteins and first shell of interactors
white nodes:
second shell of interactors
Node Content
empty nodes:
proteins of unknown 3D structure
filled nodes:
some 3D structure is known or predicted
Edges represent protein-protein associations
associations are meant to be specific and meaningful, i.e. proteins jointly contribute to a shared function; this does not necessarily mean they are physically binding each other.
Known Interactions
from curated databases
experimentally determined
Predicted Interactions
gene neighborhood
gene fusions
gene co-occurrence
protein homology
Your Input:
Gene Fusion
GREM2Gremlin-2; Cytokine that inhibits the activity of BMP2 and BMP4 in a dose-dependent manner, and thereby modulates signaling by BMP family members. Contributes to the regulation of embryonic morphogenesis via BMP family members. Antagonizes BMP4-induced suppression of progesterone production in granulosa cells (168 aa)    
Predicted Functional Partners:
Bone morphogenetic protein 2; Induces cartilage and bone formation. Stimulates the differentiation of myoblasts into osteoblasts via the EIF2AK3-EIF2A- ATF4 pathway. BMP2 activation of EIF2AK3 stimulates phosphorylation of EIF2A which leads to increased expression of ATF4 which plays a central role in osteoblast differentiation. In addition stimulates TMEM119, which upregulates the expression of ATF4; Belongs to the TGF-beta family
Bone morphogenetic protein 4; Induces cartilage and bone formation. Also act in mesoderm induction, tooth development, limb formation and fracture repair. Acts in concert with PTHLH/PTHRP to stimulate ductal outgrowth during embryonic mammary development and to inhibit hair follicle induction (By similarity); Bone morphogenetic proteins
Growth/differentiation factor 9; Required for ovarian folliculogenesis. Promotes primordial follicle development. Stimulates granulosa cell proliferation. Promotes cell transition from G0/G1 to S and G2/M phases, through an increase of CCND1 and CCNE1 expression, and RB1 phosphorylation. It regulates STAR expression and cAMP-dependent progesterone release in granulosa and thecal cells. Attenuates the suppressive effects of activin A on STAR expression and progesterone production by increasing the expression of inhibin B. It suppresses FST and FSTL3 production in granulosa-lutein cells; [...]
Chordin; Dorsalizing factor. Key developmental protein that dorsalizes early vertebrate embryonic tissues by binding to ventralizing TGF-beta family bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and sequestering them in latent complexes (By similarity)
Bone morphogenetic protein 7; Induces cartilage and bone formation. May be the osteoinductive factor responsible for the phenomenon of epithelial osteogenesis. Plays a role in calcium regulation and bone homeostasis; Bone morphogenetic proteins
Sclerostin domain-containing protein 1; May be involved in the onset of endometrial receptivity for implantation/sensitization for the decidual cell reaction Enhances Wnt signaling and inhibits TGF-beta signaling (By similarity). Directly antagonizes activity of BMP2, BMP4, BMP6 and BMP7 in a dose-dependent manner; DAN family
DAN domain family member 5; Seems to play a role in the correct specification of the left-right axis. May antagonize NODAL and BMP4 signaling. Cystine knot-containing proteins play important roles during development, organogenesis, tissue growth and differentiation (By similarity); DAN family
Dynein assembly factor 1, axonemal; Cilium-specific protein required for the stability of the ciliary architecture. Plays a role in cytoplasmic preassembly of dynein arms. Involved in regulation of microtubule-based cilia and actin-based brush border microvilli
Noggin; Inhibitor of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) signaling which is required for growth and patterning of the neural tube and somite. Essential for cartilage morphogenesis and joint formation. Inhibits chondrocyte differentiation through its interaction with GDF5 and, probably, GDF6
Bone morphogenetic protein 6; Induces cartilage and bone formation; Bone morphogenetic proteins
Your Current Organism:
Homo sapiens
NCBI taxonomy Id: 9606
Other names: H. sapiens, Homo sapiens, human, man
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