STRINGSTRING
STRING protein interaction network
Nodes:
Network nodes represent proteins
splice isoforms or post-translational modifications are collapsed, i.e. each node represents all the proteins produced by a single, protein-coding gene locus.
Node Color
colored nodes:
query proteins and first shell of interactors
white nodes:
second shell of interactors
Node Content
empty nodes:
proteins of unknown 3D structure
filled nodes:
some 3D structure is known or predicted
Edges:
Edges represent protein-protein associations
associations are meant to be specific and meaningful, i.e. proteins jointly contribute to a shared function; this does not necessarily mean they are physically binding each other.
Known Interactions
from curated databases
experimentally determined
Predicted Interactions
gene neighborhood
gene fusions
gene co-occurrence
Others
textmining
co-expression
protein homology
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[Homology]
Score
TGIF1Homeobox protein TGIF1; Binds to a retinoid X receptor (RXR) responsive element from the cellular retinol-binding protein II promoter (CRBPII- RXRE). Inhibits the 9-cis-retinoic acid-dependent RXR alpha transcription activation of the retinoic acid responsive element. Active transcriptional corepressor of SMAD2. Links the nodal signaling pathway to the bifurcation of the forebrain and the establishment of ventral midline structures. May participate in the transmission of nuclear signals during development and in the adult, as illustrated by the down-modulation of the RXR alpha activiti [...] (401 aa)    
Predicted Functional Partners:
SMAD2
Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 2; Receptor-regulated SMAD (R-SMAD) that is an intracellular signal transducer and transcriptional modulator activated by TGF-beta (transforming growth factor) and activin type 1 receptor kinases. Binds the TRE element in the promoter region of many genes that are regulated by TGF-beta and, on formation of the SMAD2/SMAD4 complex, activates transcription. May act as a tumor suppressor in colorectal carcinoma. Positively regulates PDPK1 kinase activity by stimulating its dissociation from the 14-3-3 protein YWHAQ which acts as a negative regulator
   
 0.977
SMAD3
Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3; Receptor-regulated SMAD (R-SMAD) that is an intracellular signal transducer and transcriptional modulator activated by TGF-beta (transforming growth factor) and activin type 1 receptor kinases. Binds the TRE element in the promoter region of many genes that are regulated by TGF-beta and, on formation of the SMAD3/SMAD4 complex, activates transcription. Also can form a SMAD3/SMAD4/JUN/FOS complex at the AP-1/SMAD site to regulate TGF-beta-mediated transcription. Has an inhibitory effect on wound healing probably by modulating both growth and mi [...]
   
 0.952
CTBP1
C-terminal-binding protein 1; Corepressor targeting diverse transcription regulators such as GLIS2 or BCL6. Has dehydrogenase activity. Involved in controlling the equilibrium between tubular and stacked structures in the Golgi complex. Functions in brown adipose tissue (BAT) differentiation; Belongs to the D-isomer specific 2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase family
    
 0.950
HDAC1
Histone deacetylase 1; Responsible for the deacetylation of lysine residues on the N-terminal part of the core histones (H2A, H2B, H3 and H4). Histone deacetylation gives a tag for epigenetic repression and plays an important role in transcriptional regulation, cell cycle progression and developmental events. Histone deacetylases act via the formation of large multiprotein complexes. Deacetylates SP proteins, SP1 and SP3, and regulates their function. Component of the BRG1-RB1-HDAC1 complex, which negatively regulates the CREST- mediated transcription in resting neurons. Upon calcium s [...]
   
 0.940
SIN3A
Paired amphipathic helix protein Sin3a; Acts as a transcriptional repressor. Corepressor for REST. Interacts with MXI1 to repress MYC responsive genes and antagonize MYC oncogenic activities. Also interacts with MXD1-MAX heterodimers to repress transcription by tethering SIN3A to DNA. Acts cooperatively with OGT to repress transcription in parallel with histone deacetylation. Involved in he control of the circadian rhythms. Required for the transcriptional repression of circadian target genes, such as PER1, mediated by the large PER complex through histone deacetylation. Cooperates wit [...]
    
 0.940
SMAD4
Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 4; In muscle physiology, plays a central role in the balance between atrophy and hypertrophy. When recruited by MSTN, promotes atrophy response via phosphorylated SMAD2/4. MSTN decrease causes SMAD4 release and subsequent recruitment by the BMP pathway to promote hypertrophy via phosphorylated SMAD1/5/8. Acts synergistically with SMAD1 and YY1 in bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-mediated cardiac-specific gene expression. Binds to SMAD binding elements (SBEs) (5'-GTCT/AGAC-3') within BMP response element (BMPRE) of cardiac activating regions (By s [...]
   
 0.930
SAP30
Histone deacetylase complex subunit SAP30; Involved in the functional recruitment of the Sin3- histone deacetylase complex (HDAC) to a specific subset of N-CoR corepressor complexes. Capable of transcription repression by N- CoR. Active in deacetylating core histone octamers (when in a complex) but inactive in deacetylating nucleosomal histones; Belongs to the SAP30 family
   
 
 0.918
SERPINE1
Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1; Serine protease inhibitor. This inhibitor acts as 'bait' for tissue plasminogen activator, urokinase, protein C and matriptase-3/TMPRSS7. Its rapid interaction with PLAT may function as a major control point in the regulation of fibrinolysis; Serpin peptidase inhibitors
   
 
 0.911
RBBP4
Histone-binding protein RBBP4; Core histone-binding subunit that may target chromatin assembly factors, chromatin remodeling factors and histone deacetylases to their histone substrates in a manner that is regulated by nucleosomal DNA. Component of several complexes which regulate chromatin metabolism. These include the chromatin assembly factor 1 (CAF-1) complex, which is required for chromatin assembly following DNA replication and DNA repair; the core histone deacetylase (HDAC) complex, which promotes histone deacetylation and consequent transcriptional repression; the nucleosome re [...]
   
 
  0.903
SIN3B
Paired amphipathic helix protein Sin3b; Acts as a transcriptional repressor. Interacts with MXI1 to repress MYC responsive genes and antagonize MYC oncogenic activities. Interacts with MAD-MAX heterodimers by binding to MAD. The heterodimer then represses transcription by tethering SIN3B to DNA. Also forms a complex with FOXK1 which represses transcription. With FOXK1, regulates cell cycle progression probably by repressing cell cycle inhibitor genes expression
    
 0.903
Your Current Organism:
Homo sapiens
NCBI taxonomy Id: 9606
Other names: H. sapiens, Homo sapiens, human, man
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