STRINGSTRING
STRING protein interaction network
Nodes:
Network nodes represent proteins
splice isoforms or post-translational modifications are collapsed, i.e. each node represents all the proteins produced by a single, protein-coding gene locus.
Node Color
colored nodes:
query proteins and first shell of interactors
white nodes:
second shell of interactors
Node Content
empty nodes:
proteins of unknown 3D structure
filled nodes:
a 3D structure is known or predicted
Edges:
Edges represent protein-protein associations
associations are meant to be specific and meaningful, i.e. proteins jointly contribute to a shared function; this does not necessarily mean they are physically binding to each other.
Known Interactions
from curated databases
experimentally determined
Predicted Interactions
gene neighborhood
gene fusions
gene co-occurrence
Others
textmining
co-expression
protein homology
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Neighborhood
Gene Fusion
Cooccurrence
Coexpression
Experiments
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[Homology]
Score
NOGNoggin; Inhibitor of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) signaling which is required for growth and patterning of the neural tube and somite. Essential for cartilage morphogenesis and joint formation. Inhibits chondrocyte differentiation through its interaction with GDF5 and, probably, GDF6. (232 aa)    
Predicted Functional Partners:
BMP4
Bone morphogenetic protein 4; Induces cartilage and bone formation. Also acts in mesoderm induction, tooth development, limb formation and fracture repair. Acts in concert with PTHLH/PTHRP to stimulate ductal outgrowth during embryonic mammary development and to inhibit hair follicle induction (By similarity).
   
 
 0.999
BMP2
Bone morphogenetic protein 2; Induces cartilage and bone formation. Stimulates the differentiation of myoblasts into osteoblasts via the EIF2AK3-EIF2A- ATF4 pathway. BMP2 activation of EIF2AK3 stimulates phosphorylation of EIF2A which leads to increased expression of ATF4 which plays a central role in osteoblast differentiation. In addition stimulates TMEM119, which upregulates the expression of ATF4 ; Belongs to the TGF-beta family.
   
 0.999
BMP7
Bone morphogenetic protein 7; Induces cartilage and bone formation. May be the osteoinductive factor responsible for the phenomenon of epithelial osteogenesis. Plays a role in calcium regulation and bone homeostasis.
   
 0.999
GDF5
Growth/differentiation factor 5; Growth factor involved in bone and cartilage formation. During cartilage development regulates differentiation of chondrogenic tissue through two pathways. Firstly, positively regulates differentiation of chondrogenic tissue through its binding of high affinity with BMPR1B and of less affinity with BMPR1A, leading to induction of SMAD1-SMAD5-SMAD8 complex phosphorylation and then SMAD protein signaling transduction. Secondly, negatively regulates chondrogenic differentiation through its interaction with NOG. Required to prevent excessive muscle loss upo [...]
   
 0.997
BMP6
Bone morphogenetic protein 6; Induces cartilage and bone formation.
   
 
 0.990
BMP5
Bone morphogenetic protein 5; Induces cartilage and bone formation.
     
 0.985
GDF6
Growth/differentiation factor 6; Growth factor that controls proliferation and cellular differentiation in the retina and bone formation. Plays a key role in regulating apoptosis during retinal development. Establishes dorsal- ventral positional information in the retina and controls the formation of the retinotectal map. Required for normal formation of bones and joints in the limbs, skull, digits and axial skeleton. Plays a key role in establishing boundaries between skeletal elements during development. Regulation of GDF6 expression seems to be a mechanism for evolving species-speci [...]
   
 
 0.973
GDF7
Growth/differentiation factor 7; May play an active role in the motor area of the primate neocortex.
     
 0.949
SHH
Sonic hedgehog protein N-product; [Sonic hedgehog protein]: The C-terminal part of the sonic hedgehog protein precursor displays an autoproteolysis and a cholesterol transferase activity (By similarity). Both activities result in the cleavage of the full-length protein into two parts (ShhN and ShhC) followed by the covalent attachment of a cholesterol moiety to the C-terminal of the newly generated ShhN (By similarity). Both activities occur in the reticulum endoplasmic (By similarity). Once cleaved, ShhC is degraded in the endoplasmic reticulum (By similarity).
   
  
 0.936
RSPO1
R-spondin-1; Activator of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway by acting as a ligand for LGR4-6 receptors. Upon binding to LGR4-6 (LGR4, LGR5 or LGR6), LGR4-6 associate with phosphorylated LRP6 and frizzled receptors that are activated by extracellular Wnt receptors, triggering the canonical Wnt signaling pathway to increase expression of target genes. Also regulates the canonical Wnt/beta-catenin- dependent pathway and non-canonical Wnt signaling by acting as an inhibitor of ZNRF3, an important regulator of the Wnt signaling pathway. Acts as a ligand for frizzled FZD8 and LRP6. May neg [...]
      
 0.925
Your Current Organism:
Homo sapiens
NCBI taxonomy Id: 9606
Other names: H. sapiens, human, man
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