STRINGSTRING
STRING protein interaction network
Nodes:
Network nodes represent proteins
splice isoforms or post-translational modifications are collapsed, i.e. each node represents all the proteins produced by a single, protein-coding gene locus.
Node Color
colored nodes:
query proteins and first shell of interactors
white nodes:
second shell of interactors
Node Content
empty nodes:
proteins of unknown 3D structure
filled nodes:
a 3D structure is known or predicted
Edges:
Edges represent protein-protein associations
associations are meant to be specific and meaningful, i.e. proteins jointly contribute to a shared function; this does not necessarily mean they are physically binding to each other.
Known Interactions
from curated databases
experimentally determined
Predicted Interactions
gene neighborhood
gene fusions
gene co-occurrence
Others
textmining
co-expression
protein homology
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Cooccurrence
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[Homology]
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HMGB1High mobility group protein B1; Multifunctional redox sensitive protein with various roles in different cellular compartments. In the nucleus is one of the major chromatin-associated non-histone proteins and acts as a DNA chaperone involved in replication, transcription, chromatin remodeling, V(D)J recombination, DNA repair and genome stability. Proposed to be an universal biosensor for nucleic acids. Promotes host inflammatory response to sterile and infectious signals and is involved in the coordination and integration of innate and adaptive immune responses. In the cytoplasm functio [...] (215 aa)    
Predicted Functional Partners:
BECN1
Beclin-1-C 35 kDa; Plays a central role in autophagy. Acts as core subunit of the PI3K complex that mediates formation of phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate; different complex forms are believed to play a role in multiple membrane trafficking pathways: PI3KC3-C1 is involved in initiation of autophagosomes and PI3KC3-C2 in maturation of autophagosomes and endocytosis. Involved in regulation of degradative endocytic trafficking and required for the abcission step in cytokinesis, probably in the context of PI3KC3-C2. Essential for the formation of PI3KC3-C2 but not PI3KC3-C1 PI3K complex fo [...]
   
 0.999
TLR4
Toll-like receptor 4; Cooperates with LY96 and CD14 to mediate the innate immune response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Acts via MYD88, TIRAP and TRAF6, leading to NF-kappa-B activation, cytokine secretion and the inflammatory response. Also involved in LPS-independent inflammatory responses triggered by free fatty acids, such as palmitate, and Ni(2+). Responses triggered by Ni(2+) require non- conserved histidines and are, therefore, species-specific. Both M.tuberculosis HSP70 (dnaK) and HSP65 (groEL-2) act via this protein to stimulate NF-kappa-B expression. In complex with [...]
   
 0.999
AGER
Advanced glycosylation end product-specific receptor; Mediates interactions of advanced glycosylation end products (AGE). These are nonenzymatically glycosylated proteins which accumulate in vascular tissue in aging and at an accelerated rate in diabetes. Acts as a mediator of both acute and chronic vascular inflammation in conditions such as atherosclerosis and in particular as a complication of diabetes. AGE/RAGE signaling plays an important role in regulating the production/expression of TNF-alpha, oxidative stress, and endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes. Interaction with S1 [...]
    
 0.999
TLR2
Toll-like receptor 2; Cooperates with LY96 to mediate the innate immune response to bacterial lipoproteins and other microbial cell wall components. Cooperates with TLR1 or TLR6 to mediate the innate immune response to bacterial lipoproteins or lipopeptides. Acts via MYD88 and TRAF6, leading to NF-kappa-B activation, cytokine secretion and the inflammatory response. May also activate immune cells and promote apoptosis in response to the lipid moiety of lipoproteins. Recognizes mycoplasmal macrophage-activating lipopeptide-2kD (MALP-2), soluble tuberculosis factor (STF), phenol-soluble [...]
   
 0.998
TP53
Cellular tumor antigen p53; Acts as a tumor suppressor in many tumor types; induces growth arrest or apoptosis depending on the physiological circumstances and cell type. Involved in cell cycle regulation as a trans-activator that acts to negatively regulate cell division by controlling a set of genes required for this process. One of the activated genes is an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases. Apoptosis induction seems to be mediated either by stimulation of BAX and FAS antigen expression, or by repression of Bcl-2 expression. Its pro-apoptotic activity is activated via its intera [...]
   
 
 0.997
TLR9
Toll-like receptor 9; Key component of innate and adaptive immunity. TLRs (Toll- like receptors) control host immune response against pathogens through recognition of molecular patterns specific to microorganisms. TLR9 is a nucleotide-sensing TLR which is activated by unmethylated cytidine- phosphate-guanosine (CpG) dinucleotides. Acts via MYD88 and TRAF6, leading to NF-kappa-B activation, cytokine secretion and the inflammatory response. Controls lymphocyte response to Helicobacter infection (By similarity). Upon CpG stimulation, induces B-cell proliferation, activation, survival and [...]
      
 0.997
HAVCR2
Hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 2; Cell surface receptor implicated in modulating innate and adaptive immune responses. Generally accepted to have an inhibiting function. Reports on stimulating functions suggest that the activity may be influenced by the cellular context and/or the respective ligand. Regulates macrophage activation. Inhibits T-helper type 1 lymphocyte (Th1)-mediated auto- and alloimmune responses and promotes immunological tolerance. In CD8+ cells attenuates TCR-induced signaling, specifically by blocking NF-kappaB and NFAT promoter activities resulting in the loss [...]
   
 
 0.991
CD24
Signal transducer CD24; May have a pivotal role in cell differentiation of different cell types. Signaling could be triggered by the binding of a lectin- like ligand to the CD24 carbohydrates, and transduced by the release of second messengers derived from the GPI-anchor. Modulates B-cell activation responses. Promotes AG-dependent proliferation of B-cells, and prevents their terminal differentiation into antibody-forming cells. In association with SIGLEC10 may be involved in the selective suppression of the immune response to danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) such as HMGB1, [...]
   
  
 0.991
CXCL12
Stromal cell-derived factor 1; Chemoattractant active on T-lymphocytes and monocytes but not neutrophils. Activates the C-X-C chemokine receptor CXCR4 to induce a rapid and transient rise in the level of intracellular calcium ions and chemotaxis. SDF-1-beta(3-72) and SDF-1-alpha(3-67) show a reduced chemotactic activity. Binding to cell surface proteoglycans seems to inhibit formation of SDF-1-alpha(3-67) and thus to preserve activity on local sites. Also binds to atypical chemokine receptor ACKR3, which activates the beta-arrestin pathway and acts as a scavenger receptor for SDF-1. Bi [...]
   
 
 0.984
HMGB2
High mobility group protein B2; Multifunctional protein with various roles in different cellular compartments. May act in a redox sensitive manner. In the nucleus is an abundant chromatin-associated non-histone protein involved in transcription, chromatin remodeling and V(D)J recombination and probably other processes. Binds DNA with a preference to non- canonical DNA structures such as single-stranded DNA. Can bent DNA and enhance DNA flexibility by looping thus providing a mechanism to promote activities on various gene promoters by enhancing transcription factor binding and/or bring [...]
  
0.981
Your Current Organism:
Homo sapiens
NCBI taxonomy Id: 9606
Other names: H. sapiens, human, man
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