• Version:
  • 11.0 (preview - - version 10.5 still available here)
LGALS9 protein (human) - STRING interaction network
"LGALS9" - Galectin-9 in Homo sapiens
Network nodes represent proteins
splice isoforms or post-translational modifications are collapsed, i.e. each node represents all the proteins produced by a single, protein-coding gene locus.
Node Color
colored nodes:
query proteins and first shell of interactors
white nodes:
second shell of interactors
Node Content
empty nodes:
proteins of unknown 3D structure
filled nodes:
some 3D structure is known or predicted
Edges represent protein-protein associations
associations are meant to be specific and meaningful, i.e. proteins jointly contribute to a shared function; this does not necessarily mean they are physically binding each other.
Known Interactions
from curated databases
experimentally determined
Predicted Interactions
gene neighborhood
gene fusions
gene co-occurrence
protein homology
Your Input:
Gene Fusion
LGALS9Galectin-9; Binds galactosides. Has high affinity for the Forssman pentasaccharide. Ligand for HAVCR2/TIM3. Binding to HAVCR2 induces T-helper type 1 lymphocyte (Th1) death. Also stimulates bactericidal activity in infected macrophages by causing macrophage activation and IL1B secretion which restricts intracellular bacterial growth (By similarity). Ligand for P4HB; the interaction retains P4HB at the cell surface of Th2 T-helper cells, increasing disulfide reductase activity at the plasma membrane, altering the plasma membrane redox state and enhancing cell migration. Ligand for CD44; [...] (355 aa)    
Predicted Functional Partners:
Hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 2; Cell surface receptor implicated in modulating innate and adaptive immune responses. Generally accepted to have an inhibiting function. Reports on stimulating functions suggest that the activity may be influenced by the cellular context and/or the respective ligand. Regulates macrophage activation. Inhibits T-helper type 1 lymphocyte (Th1)-mediated auto- and alloimmune responses and promotes immunological tolerance. In CD8+ cells attenuates TCR-induced signaling, specifically by blocking NF- kappaB and NFAT promoter activities resulting in the los [...] (301 aa)
Forkhead box protein P3; Transcriptional regulator which is crucial for the development and inhibitory function of regulatory T-cells (Treg). Plays an essential role in maintaining homeostasis of the immune system by allowing the acquisition of full suppressive function and stability of the Treg lineage, and by directly modulating the expansion and function of conventional T-cells. Can act either as a transcriptional repressor or a transcriptional activator depending on its interactions with other transcription factors, histone acetylases and deacetylases. The suppressive activity of T [...] (431 aa)
Galectin-3; Galactose-specific lectin which binds IgE. May mediate with the alpha-3, beta-1 integrin the stimulation by CSPG4 of endothelial cells migration. Together with DMBT1, required for terminal differentiation of columnar epithelial cells during early embryogenesis (By similarity). In the nucleus- acts as a pre-mRNA splicing factor. Involved in acute inflammatory responses including neutrophil activation and adhesion, chemoattraction of monocytes macrophages, opsonization of apoptotic neutrophils, and activation of mast cells; Endogenous ligands (250 aa)
CD44 antigen; Receptor for hyaluronic acid (HA). Mediates cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions through its affinity for HA, and possibly also through its affinity for other ligands such as osteopontin, collagens, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Adhesion with HA plays an important role in cell migration, tumor growth and progression. In cancer cells, may play an important role in invadopodia formation. Also involved in lymphocyte activation, recirculation and homing, and in hematopoiesis. Altered expression or dysfunction causes numerous pathogenic phenotypes. Great protein hete [...] (742 aa)
Galectin-9B; Binds galactosides; Galectins (355 aa)
Galectin-9C; Binds galactosides; Galectins (356 aa)
Programmed cell death 1 ligand 1; Involved in the costimulatory signal, essential for T- cell proliferation and production of IL10 and IFNG, in an IL2- dependent and a PDCD1-independent manner. Interaction with PDCD1 inhibits T-cell proliferation and cytokine production; Belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily. BTN/MOG family (290 aa)
Lymphocyte activation gene 3 protein; Involved in lymphocyte activation. Binds to HLA class-II antigens; CD molecules (525 aa)
Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte protein 4; Inhibitory receptor acting as a major negative regulator of T-cell responses. The affinity of CTLA4 for its natural B7 family ligands, CD80 and CD86, is considerably stronger than the affinity of their cognate stimulatory coreceptor CD28 (223 aa)
T-lymphocyte activation antigen CD86; Receptor involved in the costimulatory signal essential for T-lymphocyte proliferation and interleukin-2 production, by binding CD28 or CTLA-4. May play a critical role in the early events of T-cell activation and costimulation of naive T-cells, such as deciding between immunity and anergy that is made by T- cells within 24 hours after activation. Isoform 2 interferes with the formation of CD86 clusters, and thus acts as a negative regulator of T-cell activation (329 aa)
Your Current Organism:
Homo sapiens
NCBI taxonomy Id: 9606
Other names: H. sapiens, Homo sapiens, human, man
Server load: low (14%) [HD]