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SMS protein (human) - STRING interaction network
"SMS" - Spermine synthase in Homo sapiens
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splice isoforms or post-translational modifications are collapsed, i.e. each node represents all the proteins produced by a single, protein-coding gene locus.
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query proteins and first shell of interactors
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second shell of interactors
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proteins of unknown 3D structure
filled nodes:
some 3D structure is known or predicted
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Known Interactions
from curated databases
experimentally determined
Predicted Interactions
gene neighborhood
gene fusions
gene co-occurrence
protein homology
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Gene Fusion
SMSSpermine synthase; Catalyzes the production of spermine from spermidine and decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine (dcSAM) (366 aa)    
Predicted Functional Partners:
S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase proenzyme; Essential for biosynthesis of the polyamines spermidine and spermine. Promotes maintenance and self-renewal of embryonic stem cells, by maintaining spermine levels; Belongs to the eukaryotic AdoMetDC family (334 aa)
S-methyl-5’-thioadenosine phosphorylase; Catalyzes the reversible phosphorylation of S-methyl-5’- thioadenosine (MTA) to adenine and 5-methylthioribose-1-phosphate. Involved in the breakdown of MTA, a major by-product of polyamine biosynthesis. Responsible for the first step in the methionine salvage pathway after MTA has been generated from S- adenosylmethionine. Has broad substrate specificity with 6- aminopurine nucleosides as preferred substrates; Belongs to the PNP/MTAP phosphorylase family. MTAP subfamily (283 aa)
Spermine oxidase; Flavoenzyme which catalyzes the oxidation of spermine to spermidine. Can also use N(1)-acetylspermine and spermidine as substrates, with different affinity depending on the isoform (isozyme) and on the experimental conditions. Plays an important role in the regulation of polyamine intracellular concentration and has the potential to act as a determinant of cellular sensitivity to the antitumor polyamine analogs. May contribute to beta-alanine production via aldehyde dehydrogenase conversion of 3-amino-propanal; Belongs to the flavin monoamine oxidase family (585 aa)
Methionine synthase reductase; Involved in the reductive regeneration of cob(I)alamin (vitamin B12) cofactor required for the maintenance of methionine synthase in a functional state. Necessary for utilization of methylgroups from the folate cycle, thereby affecting transgenerational epigenetic inheritance. Folate pathway donates methyl groups necessary for cellular methylation and affects different pathways such as DNA methylation, possibly explaining the transgenerational epigenetic inheritance effects (725 aa)
Enolase-phosphatase E1; Bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the enolization of 2,3-diketo-5-methylthiopentyl-1-phosphate (DK-MTP-1-P) into the intermediate 2-hydroxy-3-keto-5-methylthiopentenyl-1-phosphate (HK-MTPenyl-1-P), which is then dephosphorylated to form the acireductone 1,2-dihydroxy-3-keto-5-methylthiopentene (DHK- MTPene); HAD Asp-based non-protein phosphatases (261 aa)
Spermidine synthase; Catalyzes the production of spermidine from putrescine and decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine (dcSAM). Has a strong preference for putrescine as substrate, and has very low activity towards 1,3-diaminopropane. Has extremely low activity towards spermidine (302 aa)
Ubiquitin-like modifier-activating enzyme 6; Activates ubiquitin by first adenylating its C-terminal glycine residue with ATP, and thereafter linking this residue to the side chain of a cysteine residue in E1, yielding a ubiquitin- E1 thioester and free AMP. Specific for ubiquitin, does not activate ubiquitin-like peptides. Differs from UBE1 in its specificity for substrate E2 charging. Does not charge cell cycle E2s, such as CDC34. Essential for embryonic development. Required for UBD/FAT10 conjugation. Isoform 2 may play a key role in ubiquitin system and may influence spermatogenesi [...] (1052 aa)
Ornithine decarboxylase; Catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step of polyamine biosynthesis that converts ornithine into putrescine, which is the precursor for the polyamines, spermidine and spermine. Polyamines are essential for cell proliferation and are implicated in cellular processes, ranging from DNA replication to apoptosis; Belongs to the Orn/Lys/Arg decarboxylase class-II family (461 aa)
Vigilin; Appears to play a role in cell sterol metabolism. It may function to protect cells from over-accumulation of cholesterol (1268 aa)
Antizyme inhibitor 2; Antizyme inhibitor (AZI) protein that positively regulates ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity and polyamine uptake. AZI is an enzymatically inactive ODC homolog that counteracts the negative effect of ODC antizymes (AZs) OAZ1, OAZ2 and OAZ3 on ODC activity by competing with ODC for antizyme- binding. Inhibits antizyme-dependent ODC degradation and releases ODC monomers from their inactive complex with antizymes, leading to formation of the catalytically active ODC homodimer and restoring polyamine production. Participates in the morphological integrity of the [...] (460 aa)
Your Current Organism:
Homo sapiens
NCBI taxonomy Id: 9606
Other names: H. sapiens, Homo sapiens, human, man
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