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STRINGSTRING
STRING protein interaction network
Nodes:
Network nodes represent proteins
splice isoforms or post-translational modifications are collapsed, i.e. each node represents all the proteins produced by a single, protein-coding gene locus.
Node Color
colored nodes:
query proteins and first shell of interactors
white nodes:
second shell of interactors
Node Content
empty nodes:
proteins of unknown 3D structure
filled nodes:
some 3D structure is known or predicted
Edges:
Edges represent protein-protein associations
associations are meant to be specific and meaningful, i.e. proteins jointly contribute to a shared function; this does not necessarily mean they are physically binding to each other.
Known Interactions
from curated databases
experimentally determined
Predicted Interactions
gene neighborhood
gene fusions
gene co-occurrence
Others
textmining
co-expression
protein homology
Your Input:
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[Homology]
Score
TNFTumor necrosis factor; Cytokine that binds to TNFRSF1A/TNFR1 and TNFRSF1B/TNFBR. It is mainly secreted by macrophages and can induce cell death of certain tumor cell lines. It is potent pyrogen causing fever by direct action or by stimulation of interleukin-1 secretion and is implicated in the induction of cachexia, Under certain conditions it can stimulate cell proliferation and induce cell differentiation. Impairs regulatory T-cells (Treg) function in individuals with rheumatoid arthritis via FOXP3 dephosphorylation. Upregulates the expression of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1), which de [...] (233 aa)    
Predicted Functional Partners:
TNFRSF1A
Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 1A; Receptor for TNFSF2/TNF-alpha and homotrimeric TNFSF1/lymphotoxin-alpha. The adapter molecule FADD recruits caspase-8 to the activated receptor. The resulting death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) performs caspase-8 proteolytic activation which initiates the subsequent cascade of caspases (aspartate- specific cysteine proteases) mediating apoptosis. Contributes to the induction of non-cytocidal TNF effects including anti-viral state and activation of the acid sphingomyelinase; CD molecules
   
 0.999
TRADD
Tumor necrosis factor receptor type 1-associated DEATH domain protein; The nuclear form acts as a tumor suppressor by preventing ubiquitination and degradation of isoform p19ARF/ARF of CDKN2A by TRIP12: acts by interacting with TRIP12, leading to disrupt interaction between TRIP12 and isoform p19ARF/ARF of CDKN2A (By similarity). Adapter molecule for TNFRSF1A/TNFR1 that specifically associates with the cytoplasmic domain of activated TNFRSF1A/TNFR1 mediating its interaction with FADD. Overexpression of TRADD leads to two major TNF-induced responses, apoptosis and activation of NF-kappa-B
   
 0.999
TNFRSF1B
Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 1B; Receptor with high affinity for TNFSF2/TNF-alpha and approximately 5-fold lower affinity for homotrimeric TNFSF1/lymphotoxin-alpha. The TRAF1/TRAF2 complex recruits the apoptotic suppressors BIRC2 and BIRC3 to TNFRSF1B/TNFR2. This receptor mediates most of the metabolic effects of TNF-alpha. Isoform 2 blocks TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis, which suggests that it regulates TNF-alpha function by antagonizing its biological activity; CD molecules
   
 0.999
TRAF2
TNF receptor-associated factor 2; Regulates activation of NF-kappa-B and JNK and plays a central role in the regulation of cell survival and apoptosis. Required for normal antibody isotype switching from IgM to IgG. Has E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase activity and promotes 'Lys-63'- linked ubiquitination of target proteins, such as BIRC3, RIPK1 and TICAM1. Is an essential constituent of several E3 ubiquitin- protein ligase complexes, where it promotes the ubiquitination of target proteins by bringing them into contact with other E3 ubiquitin ligases. Regulates BIRC2 and BIRC3 protein level [...]
   
 0.998
RIPK1
Receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 1; Serine-threonine kinase which transduces inflammatory and cell-death signals (programmed necrosis) following death receptors ligation, activation of pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs), and DNA damage. Upon activation of TNFR1 by the TNF-alpha family cytokines, TRADD and TRAF2 are recruited to the receptor. Phosphorylates DAB2IP at 'Ser-728' in a TNF-alpha-dependent manner, and thereby activates the MAP3K5-JNK apoptotic cascade. Ubiquitination by TRAF2 via 'Lys-63'-link chains acts as a critical enhancer of communication with do [...]
   
 0.998
IKBKG
NF-kappa-B essential modulator; Regulatory subunit of the IKK core complex which phosphorylates inhibitors of NF-kappa-B thus leading to the dissociation of the inhibitor/NF-kappa-B complex and ultimately the degradation of the inhibitor. Its binding to scaffolding polyubiquitin seems to play a role in IKK activation by multiple signaling receptor pathways. However, the specific type of polyubiquitin recognized upon cell stimulation (either 'Lys-63'- linked or linear polyubiquitin) and its functional importance is reported conflictingly. Also considered to be a mediator for TAX activat [...]
    
 0.998
BIRC2
Baculoviral IAP repeat-containing protein 2; Multi-functional protein which regulates not only caspases and apoptosis, but also modulates inflammatory signaling and immunity, mitogenic kinase signaling, and cell proliferation, as well as cell invasion and metastasis. Acts as an E3 ubiquitin- protein ligase regulating NF-kappa-B signaling and regulates both canonical and non-canonical NF-kappa-B signaling by acting in opposite directions: acts as a positive regulator of the canonical pathway and suppresses constitutive activation of non-canonical NF-kappa-B signaling. The target protein [...]
   
 0.997
FADD
FAS-associated death domain protein; Apoptotic adaptor molecule that recruits caspase-8 or caspase-10 to the activated Fas (CD95) or TNFR-1 receptors. The resulting aggregate called the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) performs caspase-8 proteolytic activation. Active caspase-8 initiates the subsequent cascade of caspases mediating apoptosis. Involved in interferon-mediated antiviral immune response, playing a role in the positive regulation of interferon signaling; Death effector domain containing
    
 0.996
IL10
Interleukin-10; Inhibits the synthesis of a number of cytokines, including IFN-gamma, IL-2, IL-3, TNF and GM-CSF produced by activated macrophages and by helper T-cells; Belongs to the IL-10 family
   
 
 0.996
TNFAIP3
Tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced protein 3; Ubiquitin-editing enzyme that contains both ubiquitin ligase and deubiquitinase activities. Involved in immune and inflammatory responses signaled by cytokines, such as TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta, or pathogens via Toll-like receptors (TLRs) through terminating NF-kappa-B activity. Essential component of a ubiquitin-editing protein complex, comprising also RNF11, ITCH and TAX1BP1, that ensures the transient nature of inflammatory signaling pathways. In cooperation with TAX1BP1 promotes disassembly of E2-E3 ubiquitin protein ligase complexes in [...]
   
 0.996
Your Current Organism:
Homo sapiens
NCBI taxonomy Id: 9606
Other names: H. sapiens, human, man
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