STRINGSTRING
STRING protein interaction network
Nodes:
Network nodes represent proteins
splice isoforms or post-translational modifications are collapsed, i.e. each node represents all the proteins produced by a single, protein-coding gene locus.
Node Color
colored nodes:
query proteins and first shell of interactors
white nodes:
second shell of interactors
Node Content
empty nodes:
proteins of unknown 3D structure
filled nodes:
some 3D structure is known or predicted
Edges:
Edges represent protein-protein associations
associations are meant to be specific and meaningful, i.e. proteins jointly contribute to a shared function; this does not necessarily mean they are physically binding to each other.
Known Interactions
from curated databases
experimentally determined
Predicted Interactions
gene neighborhood
gene fusions
gene co-occurrence
Others
textmining
co-expression
protein homology
Your Input:
Neighborhood
Gene Fusion
Cooccurence
Coexpression
Experiments
Databases
Textmining
[Homology]
Score
H2AFXH2A histone family member X; Histone H2AX; Variant histone H2A which replaces conventional H2A in a subset of nucleosomes. Nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a template. Histones thereby play a central role in transcription regulation, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosomal stability. DNA accessibility is regulated via a complex set of post-translational modifications of histones, also called histone code, and nucleosome remodeling. Required for checkpoint-mediated arrest of cell cycle progre [...] (143 aa)    
Predicted Functional Partners:
ATM
Serine-protein kinase ATM; Serine/threonine protein kinase which activates checkpoint signaling upon double strand breaks (DSBs), apoptosis and genotoxic stresses such as ionizing ultraviolet A light (UVA), thereby acting as a DNA damage sensor. Recognizes the substrate consensus sequence [ST]-Q. Phosphorylates 'Ser-139' of histone variant H2AX/H2AFX at double strand breaks (DSBs), thereby regulating DNA damage response mechanism. Also plays a role in pre-B cell allelic exclusion, a process leading to expression of a single immunoglobulin heavy chain allele to enforce clonality and mon [...]
    
 0.999
MDC1
Mediator of DNA damage checkpoint protein 1; Required for checkpoint mediated cell cycle arrest in response to DNA damage within both the S phase and G2/M phases of the cell cycle. May serve as a scaffold for the recruitment of DNA repair and signal transduction proteins to discrete foci of DNA damage marked by 'Ser-139' phosphorylation of histone H2AFX. Also required for downstream events subsequent to the recruitment of these proteins. These include phosphorylation and activation of the ATM, CHEK1 and CHEK2 kinases, and stabilization of TP53 and apoptosis. ATM and CHEK2 may also be a [...]
   
 0.999
TP53BP1
TP53-binding protein 1; Double-strand break (DSB) repair protein involved in response to DNA damage, telomere dynamics and class-switch recombination (CSR) during antibody genesis. Plays a key role in the repair of double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs) in response to DNA damage by promoting non-homologous end joining (NHEJ)-mediated repair of DSBs and specifically counteracting the function of the homologous recombination (HR) repair protein BRCA1. In response to DSBs, phosphorylation by ATM promotes interaction with RIF1 and dissociation from NUDT16L1/TIRR, leading to recruitment to DSBs si [...]
   
 0.999
BRCA1
Breast cancer type 1 susceptibility protein; E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase that specifically mediates the formation of 'Lys-6'-linked polyubiquitin chains and plays a central role in DNA repair by facilitating cellular responses to DNA damage. It is unclear whether it also mediates the formation of other types of polyubiquitin chains. The E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase activity is required for its tumor suppressor function. The BRCA1-BARD1 heterodimer coordinates a diverse range of cellular pathways such as DNA damage repair, ubiquitination and transcriptional regulation to maintain genomic [...]
   
 0.999
NBN
Nibrin; Component of the MRE11-RAD50-NBN (MRN complex) which plays a critical role in the cellular response to DNA damage and the maintenance of chromosome integrity. The complex is involved in double-strand break (DSB) repair, DNA recombination, maintenance of telomere integrity, cell cycle checkpoint control and meiosis. The complex possesses single-strand endonuclease activity and double-strand-specific 3'-5' exonuclease activity, which are provided by MRE11. RAD50 may be required to bind DNA ends and hold them in close proximity. NBN modulate the DNA damage signal sensing by recrui [...]
    
 0.997
HIST2H2BE
Histone cluster 2 h2b family member e; Histone H2B type 2-E; Core component of nucleosome. Nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a template. Histones thereby play a central role in transcription regulation, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosomal stability. DNA accessibility is regulated via a complex set of post-translational modifications of histones, also called histone code, and nucleosome remodeling
   
 0.997
XRCC6
X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 6; Single-stranded DNA-dependent ATP-dependent helicase. Has a role in chromosome translocation. The DNA helicase II complex binds preferentially to fork-like ends of double-stranded DNA in a cell cycle-dependent manner. It works in the 3'-5' direction. Binding to DNA may be mediated by XRCC6. Involved in DNA non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) required for double-strand break repair and V(D)J recombination. The XRCC5/6 dimer acts as regulatory subunit of the DNA-dependent protein kinase complex DNA-PK by increasing the affinity of the catalytic s [...]
   
 0.995
RNF8
E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase RNF8; E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase that plays a key role in DNA damage signaling via 2 distinct roles: by mediating the 'Lys-63'- linked ubiquitination of histones H2A and H2AX and promoting the recruitment of DNA repair proteins at double-strand breaks (DSBs) sites, and by catalyzing 'Lys-48'-linked ubiquitination to remove target proteins from DNA damage sites. Following DNA DSBs, it is recruited to the sites of damage by ATM-phosphorylated MDC1 and catalyzes the 'Lys-63'-linked ubiquitination of histones H2A and H2AX, thereby promoting the formation of TP5 [...]
    
 0.994
MRE11A
Double-strand break repair protein MRE11; Component of the MRN complex, which plays a central role in double-strand break (DSB) repair, DNA recombination, maintenance of telomere integrity and meiosis. The complex possesses single-strand endonuclease activity and double-strand- specific 3'-5' exonuclease activity, which are provided by MRE11. RAD50 may be required to bind DNA ends and hold them in close proximity. This could facilitate searches for short or long regions of sequence homology in the recombining DNA templates, and may also stimulate the activity of DNA ligases and/or rest [...]
    
 0.993
HIST1H4F
Histone cluster 1 H4 family member f; Core component of nucleosome. Nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a template. Histones thereby play a central role in transcription regulation, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosomal stability. DNA accessibility is regulated via a complex set of post-translational modifications of histones, also called histone code, and nucleosome remodeling (By similarity)
 
 
 
 0.992
Your Current Organism:
Homo sapiens
NCBI taxonomy Id: 9606
Other names: H. sapiens, human, man
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