STRINGSTRING
STRING protein interaction network
Nodes:
Network nodes represent proteins
splice isoforms or post-translational modifications are collapsed, i.e. each node represents all the proteins produced by a single, protein-coding gene locus.
Node Color
colored nodes:
query proteins and first shell of interactors
white nodes:
second shell of interactors
Node Content
empty nodes:
proteins of unknown 3D structure
filled nodes:
some 3D structure is known or predicted
Edges:
Edges represent protein-protein associations
associations are meant to be specific and meaningful, i.e. proteins jointly contribute to a shared function; this does not necessarily mean they are physically binding to each other.
Known Interactions
from curated databases
experimentally determined
Predicted Interactions
gene neighborhood
gene fusions
gene co-occurrence
Others
textmining
co-expression
protein homology
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[Homology]
Score
PTHLHParathyroid hormone-related protein; Neuroendocrine peptide which is a critical regulator of cellular and organ growth, development, migration, differentiation and survival and of epithelial calcium ion transport. Regulates endochondral bone development and epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during the formation of the mammary glands and teeth. Required for skeletal homeostasis. Promotes mammary mesenchyme differentiation and bud outgrowth by modulating mesenchymal cell responsiveness to BMPs. Upregulates BMPR1A expression in the mammary mesenchyme and this increases the sensitivity o [...] (177 aa)    
Predicted Functional Partners:
PTH1R
Parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone-related peptide receptor; Receptor for parathyroid hormone and for parathyroid hormone-related peptide. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase and also a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system
    
 0.999
PTH
Parathyroid hormone; PTH elevates calcium level by dissolving the salts in bone and preventing their renal excretion. Stimulates [1-14C]-2- deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) transport and glycogen synthesis in osteoblastic cells; Belongs to the parathyroid hormone family
     
 0.993
IHH
Indian hedgehog protein; Intercellular signal essential for a variety of patterning events during development. Binds to the patched (PTC) receptor, which functions in association with smoothened (SMO), to activate the transcription of target genes. Implicated in endochondral ossification: may regulate the balance between growth and ossification of the developing bones. Induces the expression of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHRP) (By similarity); Belongs to the hedgehog family
   
  
 0.985
KPNB1
Importin subunit beta-1; Functions in nuclear protein import, either in association with an adapter protein, like an importin-alpha subunit, which binds to nuclear localization signals (NLS) in cargo substrates, or by acting as autonomous nuclear transport receptor. Acting autonomously, serves itself as NLS receptor. Docking of the importin/substrate complex to the nuclear pore complex (NPC) is mediated by KPNB1 through binding to nucleoporin FxFG repeats and the complex is subsequently translocated through the pore by an energy requiring, Ran-dependent mechanism. At the nucleoplasmic [...]
    
 
 0.962
PTH2R
Parathyroid hormone 2 receptor; This is a specific receptor for parathyroid hormone. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase. PTH2R may be responsible for PTH effects in a number of physiological systems. It may play a significant role in pancreatic function. PTH2R presence in neurons indicates that it may function as a neurotransmitter receptor (By similarity)
     
 0.888
CALCA
Calcitonin; Calcitonin causes a rapid but short-lived drop in the level of calcium and phosphate in blood by promoting the incorporation of those ions in the bones; Endogenous ligands
     
 0.833
TNFSF11
Tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 11; Cytokine that binds to TNFRSF11B/OPG and to TNFRSF11A/RANK. Osteoclast differentiation and activation factor. Augments the ability of dendritic cells to stimulate naive T-cell proliferation. May be an important regulator of interactions between T-cells and dendritic cells and may play a role in the regulation of the T-cell-dependent immune response. May also play an important role in enhanced bone-resorption in humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy. Induces osteoclastogenesis by activating multiple signaling pathways in osteoclast precu [...]
      
 0.787
RUNX2
Runt-related transcription factor 2; Transcription factor involved in osteoblastic differentiation and skeletal morphogenesis. Essential for the maturation of osteoblasts and both intramembranous and endochondral ossification. CBF binds to the core site, 5'-PYGPYGGT-3', of a number of enhancers and promoters, including murine leukemia virus, polyomavirus enhancer, T-cell receptor enhancers, osteocalcin, osteopontin, bone sialoprotein, alpha 1(I) collagen, LCK, IL-3 and GM-CSF promoters. In osteoblasts, supports transcription activation: synergizes with SPEN/MINT to enhance FGFR2-mediat [...]
      
 0.747
SAG
S-arrestin; Arrestin is one of the major proteins of the ros (retinal rod outer segments); it binds to photoactivated- phosphorylated rhodopsin, thereby apparently preventing the transducin-mediated activation of phosphodiesterase
      
 0.746
VEGFA
Vascular endothelial growth factor A; Growth factor active in angiogenesis, vasculogenesis and endothelial cell growth. Induces endothelial cell proliferation, promotes cell migration, inhibits apoptosis and induces permeabilization of blood vessels. Binds to the FLT1/VEGFR1 and KDR/VEGFR2 receptors, heparan sulfate and heparin. NRP1/Neuropilin-1 binds isoforms VEGF-165 and VEGF-145. Isoform VEGF165B binds to KDR but does not activate downstream signaling pathways, does not activate angiogenesis and inhibits tumor growth. Binding to NRP1 receptor initiates a signaling pathway needed fo [...]
      
 0.727
Your Current Organism:
Homo sapiens
NCBI taxonomy Id: 9606
Other names: H. sapiens, human, man
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